Main Article Content
Cordia myxa extract, Antioxidant, Sun Protection Factor (SPF), Skin Elasticity, Anti-inflammatory, Photo-aging
Phyto-constituents from Cordia myxa (CM) demonstrate anti-inflammatory, UV protection and anti-aging properties due to its mucilage contents. However, incorporation and stabilization of Cordia myxa extract into a suitable delivery system has always been a challenge. To overcome, this study aimed to formulate a topical formulation, preferably emulsion, characterize its physicochemical properties, quantify its sun protection factor, investigate its effects on skin physical parameters, and evaluate its anti-aging potential, extraction and phyto-chemical analysis of CM extract. Cordia myxa (CM) extract loaded emulsion was formulated and characterized. The Cordia myxa plant extract exhibited anti-oxidant eventual (86.26±1.005% DPPH inhibition), Phenolic contents (214.38±0.412 mg of GAE/g extract), and Flavonoid contents (46.01±0.47 µg of QE/mg of extract) while the extract loaded emulsion demonstrated a sun protection factor of 17. Formulation showed stability in terms of organoleptic, pH, microscopy, and rheological investigations. Non-invasive in vivo investigations on 13 healthy volunteers showed significant improvements in skin elasticity and hydration while the skin erythema and melanin contents were reduced.
2. Krueger N, Luebberding S, Oltmer M, Streker M, Kerscher M. Age‐related changes in skin mechanical properties: a quantitative evaluation of 120 female subjects. Skin Res Technol. 2011;17(2):141-8.
3. Addor FASA. Beyond photoaging: additional factors involved in the process of skin aging. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2018:437-43.
4. Tungmunnithum D, Thongboonyou A, Pholboon A, Yangsabai AJM. Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds from medicinal plants for pharmaceutical and medical aspects: An overview. 2018;5(3):93.
5. Wallen-Russell C. The role of every-day cosmetics in altering the skin microbiome: a study using biodiversity. Cosmetics. 2018;6(1):2.
6. Dini I, Laneri S. The new challenge of green cosmetics: Natural food ingredients for cosmetic formulations. Molecules. 2021;26(13):3921.
7. Mukherjee PK, Maity N, Nema NK, Sarkar BK. Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging. Phytomedicine. 2011;19(1):64-73.
8. Samadia D. Genetic variability studies in Lasora (Cordia myxa Roxb.). Indian Journal of Plant Genetic Resources. 2005;18(3):236-40.
9. Al-Snafi AE. The Pharmacological and therapeutic importance of Cordia myxa-A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy. 2016;6(6):47-57.
10. Abdel-Aleem ER, Attia EZ, Farag FF, Samy MN, Desoukey SY. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antidiabetic activities of Cordia myxa L. leaves. Clinical Phytoscience. 2019;5(1):1-9.
11. Heinrich U, Moore CE, De Spirt S, Tronnier H, Stahl W. Green tea polyphenols provide photoprotection, increase microcirculation, and modulate skin properties of women. The Journal of nutrition. 2011;141(6):1202-8.
12. Lambers H, Piessens S, Bloem A, Pronk H, Finkel P. Natural skin surface pH is on average below 5, which is beneficial for its resident flora. Int J Cosmetic Sci. 2006;28(5):359-70.
13. Waqas MK, Akhtar N, Ahmad M, Murtaza G, Khan H, Iqbal M, et al. Formulation and characterization of a cream containing extract of fenugreek seeds. Acta Pol Pharm. 2010;67(2):173-8.
14. Vasiljević D, Parojčić J, Primorac M, Vuleta G. Rheological and droplet size analysis of W/O/W multiple emulsions containing low concentrations of polymeric emulsifiers. J Serb Chem Soc. 2009;74(7):801-16.
15. Costa SC, Detoni CB, Branco CR, Botura MB, Branco A. In vitro photoprotective effects of Marcetia taxifolia ethanolic extract and its potential for sunscreen formulations. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 2015;25:413-8.
16. Keshani-Dokht S, Emam-Djomeh Z, Yarmand M-S, Fathi M. Extraction, chemical composition, rheological behavior, antioxidant activity and functional properties of Cordia myxa mucilage. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;118:485-93.
17. Prieto JM. Procedure: Preparation of DPPH Radical, and antioxidant scavenging assay. DPPH Microplate Protocol. 2012:7-9.
18. Wong‐Paz JE, Muñiz‐Márquez DB, Aguilar‐Zárate P, Rodríguez‐Herrera R, Aguilar CN. Microplate quantification of total phenolic content from plant extracts obtained by conventional and ultrasound methods. Phytochem Anal. 2014;25(5):439-44.
19. Kim M-Y, Seguin P, Ahn J-K, Kim J-J, Chun S-C, Kim E-H, et al. Phenolic compound concentration and antioxidant activities of edible and medicinal mushrooms from Korea. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56(16):7265-70.
20. Dutra EA, Oliveira DAGdC, Kedor-Hackmann ERM, Santoro MIRMJRBdCF. Determination of sun protection factor (SPF) of sunscreens by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. 2004;40:381-5.
21. Heinrich U, Koop U, Leneveu‐Duchemin MC, Osterrieder K, Bielfeldt S, Chkarnat C, et al. Multicentre comparison of skin hydration in terms of physical‐, physiological‐and product‐dependent parameters by the capacitive method (Corneometer CM 825). Int J Cosmetic Sci. 2003;25(1‐2):45-53.
22. Mansur JdS, Breder MNR, Mansur MCdA, Azulay RDJABD. Determinaçäo do fator de proteçäo solar por espectrofotometria. 1986:121-4.
23. Gonçalves G, Campos PM. Shelf life and rheology of emulsions containing vitamin C and its derivatives. Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada. 2009;30(2).
24. Maenthaisong R, Viyoch J, Chaiyakunapruk N, Warnnissorn P. Cleansing lotion containing tamarind fruit pulp extract. II. Study of cumulative irritation effects in human. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2007;6(3):178-82.
25. Hearing VJ. Determination of melanin synthetic pathways. The Journal of investigative dermatology. 2011;131(E1):E8.
26. Qian W, Liu W, Zhu D, Cao Y, Tang A, Gong G, et al. Natural skin‑whitening compounds for the treatment of melanogenesis. Exp Ther Med. 2020;20(1):173-85.
27. Pillai S, Oresajo C, Hayward J. Ultraviolet radiation and skin aging: roles of reactive oxygen species, inflammation and protease activation, and strategies for prevention of inflammation‐induced matrix degradation–a review. Int J Cosmetic Sci. 2005;27(1):17-34.
28. Nedelec B, Forget N, Hurtubise T, Cimino S, De Muszka F, Legault A, et al. Skin characteristics: normative data for elasticity, erythema, melanin, and thickness at 16 different anatomical locations. Skin Res Technol. 2016;22(3):263-75.
29. Crowther J. Method for quantification of oils and sebum levels on skin using the Sebumeter®. Int J Cosmetic Sci. 2016;38(2):210-6.
30. Thiboutot D, Harris G, Iles V, Cimis G, Gilliland K, Hagari S. Activity of the type 1 5α-reductase exhibits regional differences in isolated sebaceous glands and whole skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1995;105(2):209-14.
31. Ijaz S, Khan HMS, Anwar Z, Talbot B, Walsh JJ. HPLC profiling of Mimosa pudica polyphenols and their non-invasive biophysical investigations for anti-dermatoheliotic and skin reinstating potential. Biomed Pharmacother. 2019;109:865-75.
32. Limtrakul P, Yodkeeree S, Thippraphan P, Punfa W, Srisomboon J. Anti-aging and tyrosinase inhibition effects of Cassia fistula flower butanolic extract. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16(1):1-9.
33. Tronnier H, Wiebusch M, Heinrich U, Stute R. Surface evaluation of living skin-SELS. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 1997;1001(9):S199.
34. Hano C, Tungmunnithum D. Plant polyphenols, more than just simple natural antioxidants: Oxidative stress, aging and age-related diseases. MDPI; 2020. p. 26.
35. Bai L, McClements DJ. Extending emulsion functionality: Post-homogenization modification of droplet properties. Processes. 2016;4(2):17.