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Nayla Javed
Haji Muhammad Shoaib Khan
Naheed Akhtar
Umair Khurshid
Umer Shaukat
Marwah Rehman
Hafiz Arfat Idrees
Muhammad Younus
Muhammad Saleem Qureshi
Zafar Iqbal
Wajeeha Almas
Muhammad Naeem
Rihana Dilshad
Rizwana Dilshad
Muhammad Wajahat
Khadija Karim
Muhammad Shahzad Khan


Cosmetic, Berberis vulgaris L., Antioxidant, Nano Ethosomes, Stability testing, Non-invasive in vivo study


Berberis vulgaris L. being copious with phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, and vitamin C along with its value-added organic properties is thought to be a good contender of the cosmetic industry. Study was thus aimed to develop a Berberis vulgaris L. (BV) extract based optimized nano-ethosomal gel and its investigation for skin rejuvenation, acne and hydration effects aided by the increased solubility and trapping of various medicinal agents and plant extract by nanostructured vesicles.

Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition test, phenolic and flavonoid content, and in-vitro SPF (sun protection effect) evaluation of the BV extract were all studied. Zeta size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (%EE), and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) were used to analyse formulations of 09 ethosomal formulations based on BV extract. After being included into the gel system, the skin effects of the improved ethosomal formulation were investigated using minimally invasive in vivo methods. A research on the acute oral toxicity of Berberis vulgaris L. was also conducted to examine any potential harmful effects.

The optimized nano ethosomal formulation (F9) was spherical in shape, 116.5nm in size, −28.5 surface charge, and showed EE 97.38%. The BV loaded ethosomal topical gel was stable physicochemically throughout the study and rheological analysis revealed non-Newtonian behavior. Ex vivo permeation of ethosomal gel exhibited 69.88% release. Statistically ANOVA indicated that in vivo parameter skin effects were significant (P˂.05).

A stable BV loaded nano ethosomal gel system is an inspiring approach for phytoextracts than conventional formulations as a cosmeceutical application that has substantial effects on skin.

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