HEAD AND NECK CANCER RISK AND HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS: BRADFORD HILL CRITERIA BASED EVALUATION

Main Article Content

Kinza Khan
Rizwana Sultan
Syed Qaswar Ali Shah
Zahid Farooq
Najeeb Ur Rehman
Hafsa Munir
Jamal Muhammad Khan

Keywords

Head and neck cancer (HNC), Bradford Hill criteria, Human papillomavirus (HPV)

Abstract

The involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV) has effectively been decoded in Head and neck cancer (HNC) worldwide with contradicting findings. Although the different groups of researchers explored the potential association of HPV with HNC using statistical meta-analysis, however, the association remained still controversial due to the major shortcomings of meta-analysis. Therefore, we arranged the present study to investigate a potential link of HPV with HNC using an additional method (Bradford Hill criteria) which helps to get a more clear picture. Methodology: Initially using PubMed, we extracted all of the studies that associated HPV to HNC. Then, to assess the potential association of HPV with HNC, an examination of the available data on HPV in HNC, normal/benign samples was done using all the major Bradford Hill criteria postulates. Furthermore, to improve the authenticity of our findings, we have also critically evaluated the methodologies of the identified studies to check the possibility of false-negative and false-positive results. Results: After a careful assessment of the previous studies against Bradford Hill criteria postulates, we observed that all the major postulates were not fulfilled. Conclusion: Therefore, our findings recommended no casual association of HPV with HNC.

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References

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