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Tang Xiangping
Jamal Muhammad Khan
Syeda Saba Sajjad
Sobia Khwaja
Yi Yongxiang
Li Junwei


Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), Bradford Hill criteria, Human papillomavirus (HPV)


Objectives: Decoding the involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV) in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) has yielded contradictory findings worldwide. Despite various statistical meta-analyses exploring this association, controversy persists due to inherent limitations of meta-analysis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential link between HPV and NPC using an alternative method, the Bradford Hill criteria, to provide a clearer perspective.

Methods: PubMed was utilized to extract studies associating HPV with NPC. We evaluated the potential association using the Bradford Hill criteria postulates, scrutinizing available data on HPV in NPC and normal/benign samples. Rigorous assessment of study methodologies enhanced the authenticity of our findings, considering the possibility of false-negative and false-positive results.

Results: A comprehensive evaluation against Bradford Hill criteria revealed unfulfilled major postulates, including strength, temporality, consistency, plausibility, biological gradient, experiment, specificity, and analogy.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest no causal association between HPV and NPC.

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