Main Article Content

Sidra Farooq
Muhammad Nazir Uddin
Sumayya Qayum
Sudhair Abbas Bangash
Babar Khan
Maria Bibi
Iqbal Nisa
Iqra Fiaz
Zeeshan khan
Fawad Khan
Amjad Khan


Antibacterial, Secondary Metabolites, Bacteria, Rhizosphere, Calendula officinalis


The main objective of the present study was isolation and identification of bacteria and determination of their secondary metabolites producing ability that had inhibitory activity against pathogenic bacteria. The soil samples were collected from rhizosphere of Calendula officinalis. The samples were serially diluted and streaked on nutrient agar plates. The isolated species were morphologically and biochemically characterized. These isolates were evaluated for production of secondary metabolites. Antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolites was performed against pathogenic bacteria isolated from diabetic foot ulcer patients i.e. Klebseilla pneumonia, Salmonella specie, Pseudomonas specie. and Shigella specie. The bacteria isolated and identified from the rhizosphere were Actinomycetes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The secondary metabolites produced by these species were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential against Salmonella spp. Pseudomonas spp., Klebseilla pneumonia and Shigella spp. In crude form. Actinomycetes showed good results against Salmonella as compare to S. aureus and E. coli. These soil isolates had effective antimicrobial potential as crude form of secondary metabolites was evaluated in this study. Thus, it is concluded from this study that these microbes and there products can be used in pure form for the development of novel potent antibiotics for agricultural or pharmaceutical purposes.

Abstract 347 | pdf Downloads 146


1. Abdulkadir, M., & Waliyu, S. (2012). Screening and isolation of the soil bacteria for ability to produce antibiotics. European Journal of Applied Sciences, 4(5), 211-215.
2. Adebola, M.O and Amadi, J.E (2010). Screening three Aspergillus spp for antagonistic activities against the cocoa black pod organism (Phytophthora palmivora) Agric. Bio. J.N. America 13: 362-365
3. Arifuzzaman, M., Khatun, M. R., & Rahman, H. (2010). Isolation and screening of actinomycetes from Sundarbans soil for antibacterial activity. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(29), 4615-4619.
4. Baazeem, A., Almanea, A., Manikandan, P., Alorabi, M., Vijayaraghavan, P., Abdel-Hadi, A. 2021. In vitro antibacterial, antifungal, nematocidal and growth promoting activities of Trichoderma hamatum FB10 and its secondary metabolites. J. Fungi, 7(5): 331.
5. Bong, C.L.Shari Fuddin, S., and Almad Kamil, M.J. (2000). Research on cocoa diseases and their management. Workshop on latest development and issues in cocoa cultivation, 22 July 2000, Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia.
6. Boottanun, P., Potisap, C., Hurdle, J. G., & Sermswan, R. W. (2017). Secondary metabolites from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from soil can kill Burkholderia pseudomallei. AMB express, 7(1), 1-11.
7. Ceylan, O., Okmen, G., & Ugur, A. (2008). Isolation of soil Streptomyces as source antibiotics active against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Asian Journal of BioSciences, 2(1), 73-82.
8. Chen XH, Koumoutsi A, Scholz R, Eisenreich A, Schneider K, Heinemeyer I, Morgenstern B, Voss B, Hess WR, Reva O, Junge H, Voigt B, Jungblut PR, Vater J, Sussmuth R, Liesegang H, Strittmatter A, Gottschalk G, Borriss R (2007) Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Fzb42. Nature biotechnology 25:1007–1014
9. Chen XH, Scholz R, Borriss M, Junge H, Mogel G, Kunz S, Borriss R (2009) Difficidin and bacilysin produced by plant-associated Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens are efficient in controlling fire blight disease. Journal of Biotechnology 140:38–44
10. Ding, L., Hirose, T., & Yokota, A. (2009). Four novel Arthrobacter species isolated from filtration substrate. International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 59(4), 856-862.
11. Gupta, V., & Keshari, B. B. (2017). Withania coagulans Dunal (paneer doda): A review. International Journal of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine, 3(5), 1330-1336.
12. Lee, L. H., Zainal, N., Azman, A. S., Eng, S. K., Goh, B. H., Yin, W. F., & Chan, K. G. (2014). Diversity and antimicrobial activities of actinobacteria isolated from tropical mangrove sediments in Malaysia. The scientific world journal, 2014.
13. Odeyemi, A., Onipe, O., & Adebayo, A. (2020). Bacteriological and mineral studies of road side soil samples in Ado-Ekiti metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, 9(6), 247-266.
14. Rajalakshmi, S., & Mahesh, N. (2014). Production and characterization of bioactive metabolites isolated from Aspergillus terreus in rhizosphere soil of medicinal plants. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3(6), 784-798.
15. Sani, S. B., & Aliyu, B. S. (2022). Determination of antibacterial activity of five medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of diabetic foot infection in Kano State, Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 13(1), 305-312.
16. Shah, S. H. A., Shakoor, A., Saboor, R., Shah, A. M., & Khan, M. S. (2022). Bacterial Profile of Diabetic Foot Ulcer with duration and Types of Diabetes and Antibiotic Therapy. Pakistan Journal of Medical & Health Sciences, 16(05), 345-345.
17. Zafar, S., Khan, S., Ahsan, F., Nisa, I., Uddin, M. N., Khan, F., & Khan, M. I. (2023). Enzymatic degradation of e. Coli biofilms by s. Aureus extracted enzymes: a promising approach for biofilm disruption. Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology, 30(18), 2415-2421.
18. Song, F., Lin, R., Yang, N., Jia, J., Wei, S., Han, J., Xu, X. 2021. Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. IMCASMF180035. Antibiotics, 10(4): 377.
19. Tiwari, K., & Gupta, R. K. (2012). Rare actinomycetes: a potential storehouse for novel antibiotics. Critical reviews in biotechnology, 32(2), 108-132.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>