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Zainab Nisa
Aisha Sethi
Mudassar Mazher
Rida Sadiqque
Muhammad Mehboob-ur-Rehman



Background: Transcutaneous drug delivery is the most desirable method to improve efficacy and increase patient tolerance. Infections have increased over the past two decades. Superficial skin infections are treatable with conventional herbs while deep root infections cannot be treated due to disruption of the stratum corneum. the skin.

Objective: This study aimed to encapsulate the antifungal miconazole nitrate (MN) in advanced novasomes to improve skin penetration and clinically transform therapeutic improvement. Method : Novasomes with free fatty acid (FFA) as an internalization promoter were prepared by ethanol injection method and novasomes were characterized by percentage entrapment efficiency (EE%), particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential (ZP), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Microscopy Calorimetry (DSC), MIC (Minimum Control Concentration), Agar Diffusion Method have been extensively studied. 

Result: The optimized MN7 formulation with 30 mg of lipid components and Span 60 oleic acid at a ratio of 2:1 (w/v) shows EE% = 97.45%, PS = 154 nm, PDI = 0.019, and ZP = ± 14 mV. In addition, MN7 showed greater inhibition of Candida albicans growth compared to MN suspension using the resazurin reduction test, The drug MN7 novasomes had significant results against C.albicans with a maximum zone of inhibition of 23.667±0.667mm. The MIC of MN7 was lower than that of unloaded novasomes (12.5 and 25 mg/mL respectively). The cell capacity remained above 85% which shows that it is non-toxic

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