Main Article Content

Imtiaz Ali Soomro
Muhammad Abbas
Habibullah Janyaro
Ayesha Siddiquie
Khizar Hayyat
Ishtiaq Hussain
Sanobar Gull
Muhammad Arif Rizwan
Barkat Ali Jatoi
Erum Bughio




The study investigated the expression pattern and potential role of VEGFA in colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) using bioinformatics tools and databases. Initially, UALCAN analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of VEGFA expression in COAD samples compared to normal controls, indicating its involvement in COAD pathogenesis. This finding was further validated using GEPIA2, further emphasizing the overexpression of VEGFA in COAD. Subsequent analysis across different parameters such as cancer stage, patient race, gender, and age consistently showed significant overexpression of VEGFA, highlighting its potential role in COAD progression. Additionally, promoter methylation analysis demonstrated hypermethylation of VEGFA in COAD samples, suggesting its aberrant regulation in cancer development. The association between VEGFA expression and overall survival (OS) was examined using KM plotter, revealing that higher VEGFA expression is associated with poor OS in COAD patients. Furthermore, genetic alteration analysis via cBioPortal indicated a low frequency of genetic mutations in VEGFA, with amplification being the most common mutation type. Overall, these findings suggest that VEGFA overexpression may contribute to the progression and development of COAD, emphasizing the need for further research to elucidate its precise role and potential therapeutic implications.

Abstract 44 | pdf Downloads 36


Sial N, Saeed S, Ahmad M, Hameed Y, Rehman A, Abbas M, et al. Multi-omics analysis identified TMED2 as a shared potential biomarker in six subtypes of human cancer. International Journal of General Medicine. 2021:7025-42.
2. Usman M, Okla MK, Asif HM, AbdElgayed G, Muccee F, Ghazanfar S, et al. A pan-cancer analysis of GINS complex subunit 4 to identify its potential role as a biomarker in multiple human cancers. American Journal of Cancer Research. 2022;12(3):986.
3. Ahmad M, Khan M, Asif R, Sial N, Abid U, Shamim T, et al. Expression characteristics and significant diagnostic and prognostic values of ANLN in human cancers. International Journal of General Medicine. 2022:1957-72.
4. Usman M, Hameed Y, Ahmad M. Does human papillomavirus cause human colorectal cancer? Applying Bradford Hill criteria postulates. ecancermedicalscience. 2020;14.
5. Khan M, Hameed Y. Discovery of novel six genes-based cervical cancer-associated biomarkers that are capable to break the heterogeneity barrier and applicable at the global level. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics. 9000.
6. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Wagle NS, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2023. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2023;73(1):17-48.
7. Miao Y, Wang J, Ma X, Yang Y, Mi D. Identification prognosis-associated immune genes in colon adenocarcinoma. Biosci Rep. 2020 Nov 27;40(11).
8. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2018. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. 2018;68(1):7-30.
9. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Goding Sauer A, Fedewa SA, Butterly LF, Anderson JC, et al. Colorectal cancer statistics, 2020. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. 2020;70(3):145-64.
10. Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, Laversanne M, Soerjomataram I, Jemal A, et al. Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. 2021;71(3):209-49.
11. Xu M, Chang J, Wang W, Wang X, Wang X, Weng W, et al. Classification of colon adenocarcinoma based on immunological characterizations: Implications for prognosis and immunotherapy. Front Immunol. 2022;13:934083.
12. Dekker E, Tanis PJ, Vleugels JL, Kasi PM, Wallace MB. Colorectal cancer. The Lancet. 2019;394(10207):1467-80.
13. Galon J, Angell HK, Bedognetti D, Marincola FM. The continuum of cancer immunosurveillance: prognostic, predictive, and mechanistic signatures. Immunity. 2013;39(1):11-26.
14. Usman M, Hameed Y. GNB1, a novel diagnostic and prognostic potential biomarker of head and neck and liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics. 9000.
15. Identification of Key Biomarkers for the Future Applications in Diagnostics and Targeted Therapy of Colorectal Cancer. Current Molecular Medicine. 2022.
16. Dong Y, Wu X, Xu C, Hameed Y, Abdel-Maksoud MA, Almanaa TN, et al. Prognostic model development and molecular subtypes identification in bladder urothelial cancer by oxidative stress signatures. Aging. 2024;16(3):2591-616.
17. Hameed Y. Decoding the significant diagnostic and prognostic importance of maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase in human cancers through deep integrative analyses. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics. 2023;19(7):1852-64.
18. Gille H, Kowalski J, Li B, LeCouter J, Moffat B, Zioncheck TF, et al. Analysis of biological effects and signaling properties of Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) and KDR (VEGFR-2): a reassessment using novel receptor-specific vascular endothelial growth factor mutants. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2001;276(5):3222-30.
19. Lohela M, Bry M, Tammela T, Alitalo K. VEGFs and receptors involved in angiogenesis versus lymphangiogenesis. Current opinion in cell biology. 2009;21(2):154-65.
20. Folkman J. Angiogenesis in cancer, vascular, rheumatoid and other disease. Nature medicine. 1995;1(1):27-30.
21. Ferrara N. VEGF and the quest for tumour angiogenesis factors. Nature Reviews Cancer. 2002;2(10):795-803.
22. Salven P, Perhoniemi V, Tykkä H, Mäenpää H, Joensuu H. Serum VEGF levels in women with a benign breast tumor or breast cancer. Breast cancer research and treatment. 1999;53:161-6.
23. Ghosh S, Sullivan CA, Zerkowski MP, Molinaro AM, Rimm DL, Camp RL, et al. High levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors (VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, neuropilin-1) are associated with worse outcome in breast cancer. Human pathology. 2008;39(12):1835-43.
24. Bando H, Weich H, Brokelmann M, Horiguchi S, Funata N, Ogawa T, et al. Association between intratumoral free and total VEGF, soluble VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and prognosis in breast cancer. British journal of cancer. 2005;92(3):553-61.
25. Nieder C, Andratschke N, Jeremic B, Molls M. Comparison of serum growth factors and tumor markers as prognostic factors for survival in non-small cell lung cancer. Anticancer research. 2003;23(6D):5117-23.
26. Chandrashekar DS, Bashel B, Balasubramanya SAH, Creighton CJ, Ponce-Rodriguez I, Chakravarthi BV, et al. UALCAN: a portal for facilitating tumor subgroup gene expression and survival analyses. Neoplasia. 2017;19(8):649-58.
27. Chandrashekar DS, Karthikeyan SK, Korla PK, Patel H, Shovon AR, Athar M, et al. UALCAN: An update to the integrated cancer data analysis platform. Neoplasia. 2022;25:18-27.
28. Tang Z, Kang B, Li C, Chen T, Zhang Z. GEPIA2: an enhanced web server for large-scale expression profiling and interactive analysis. Nucleic acids research. 2019;47(W1):W556-W60.
29. Maciejczyk A, Szelachowska J, Czapiga B, Matkowski R, Hałoń A, Györffy B, et al. Elevated BUBR1 expression is associated with poor survival in early breast cancer patients: 15-year follow-up analysis. Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry. 2013;61(5):330-9.
30. Uhlén M, Fagerberg L, Hallström BM, Lindskog C, Oksvold P, Mardinoglu A, et al. Tissue-based map of the human proteome. Science. 2015;347(6220):1260419.
31. Luczak MW, Jagodziński PP. The role of DNA methylation in cancer development. Folia histochemica et cytobiologica. 2006;44(3):143-54.
32. Sarkar S, Horn G, Moulton K, Oza A, Byler S, Kokolus S, et al. Cancer development, progression, and therapy: an epigenetic overview. International journal of molecular sciences. 2013;14(10):21087-113.
33. Hu H, Umair M, Khan SA, Sani AI, Iqbal S, Khalid F, et al. CDCA8, a mitosis-related gene, as a prospective pan-cancer biomarker: implications for survival prognosis and oncogenic immunology. American Journal of Translational Research. 2024;16(2):432.
34. Abdel-Maksoud MA, Ullah S, Nadeem A, Shaikh A, Zia MK, Zakri AM, et al. Unlocking the diagnostic, prognostic roles, and immune implications of BAX gene expression in pan-cancer analysis. American Journal of Translational Research. 2024;16(1):63.
35. Luo M, Rehman A, Haque S, Izhar S, Perveen F, Haris M, et al. Thorough examination of the potential biological implications of the cuproptosis-related gene LIPT2 in the prognosis and immunotherapy in pan-cancer. American Journal of Translational Research. 2024;16(3):940.
36. Huang L, Irshad S, Sultana U, Ali S, Jamil A, Zubair A, et al. Pan-cancer analysis of HS6ST2: associations with prognosis, tumor immunity, and drug resistance. American Journal of Translational Research. 2024;16(3):873.
37. Abdel-Maksoud MA, Ullah S, Nadeem A, Khan QUA, Zia MK, Ali S, et al. PTPN3 in cancer: unveiling its immune-mediated impact on prognosis and dysregulated signaling pathways. American Journal of Translational Research. 2023;15(11):6464.
38. Kumar A, Cherukumilli M, Mahmoudpour SH, Brand K, Bandapalli OR. ShRNA-mediated knock-down of CXCL8 inhibits tumor growth in colorectal liver metastasis. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2018;500(3):731-7.
39. Li W, Ma J-A, Sheng X, Xiao C. Screening of CXC chemokines in the microenvironment of ovarian cancer and the biological function of CXCL10. World journal of surgical oncology. 2021;19:1-16.
40. Hameed Y, Usman M, Liang S, Ejaz S. Novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of colorectal cancer: Capable to overcome the heterogeneity-specific barrier and valid for global applications. PLoS One. 2021;16(9):e0256020.
41. Ullah L, Hameed Y, Ejaz S, Raashid A, Iqbal J, Ullah I, et al. Detection of novel infiltrating ductal carcinoma-associated BReast CAncer gene 2 mutations which alter the deoxyribonucleic acid-binding ability of BReast CAncer gene 2 protein. J Cancer Res Ther. 2020;16(6):1402-7.
42. Välk K, Vooder T, Kolde R, Reintam M-A, Petzold C, Vilo J, et al. Gene expression profiles of non-small cell lung cancer: survival prediction and new biomarkers. Oncology. 2011;79(3-4):283-92.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>