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Mujahid Sher
Ishtiaq Hussain
Naila Gulfam
Hamid Hussain Afridi
Wiaam Mujahid Sher
Muhammad Ateeq
Farhat Ali Khan
Muhammad Saqib Khalil
Akhtar Aman
Mohammad Sulaiman
Alija Baig
Fawad Ali



Resistance development by microbes to the currently available drugs has driven us to find new ways to tackle this problem. Therefore, scientists had to embark on the task to find phytochemicals that could be used for the said purpose. Plant based antimicrobials are incredibly effective at combating bacterial, fungal, protozoal, and viral diseases without causing harm to humans. Silybum marianum (L.), generally known as Milk Thistle, seeds and fruits contain silymarin which has many therapeutic applications, such as antioxidand, hepatoprotective, and antimicrobial actions. Silymarin is hydrophobic and very less water insoluble with a very low oral bioavailability hampering its therapeutic effectiveness. We attempted to enhance its solubility and oral bioavaiability by reducing particle size to nanometer using two methods EPN and APSP. Characterization studies proved the reduction in its particle size and conversion to amorphous state and the bioavailability studies showed improvent in its absorption. Antimicrobial studies showed enhanced zones of inhibition and a clear reduction in MIC, MBC values compared to silymarin in the unprocessed form. The radical scavenging activity of the nanoform also increased.

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