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Arooj Khan
Nazia Kanwal
Aisha Tahir
Fareeha Akram
Rehana Badar
Muzamal Hussain
Sayyeda Ayesha Hashmi
Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmed
Momna Amjad
Zeeshan Haider


Antimicrobial activity, di-eutectic, medicinal, antibacterial


Antibiotic resistance is one of the major problem in developing countries due to either insufficient use or over-use of antibiotics. Current study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L (P1) and Juniperus excelsa (P2) against six clinically multidrug-resistant bacterial species. Leaves of experimental plants were collected from local areas of Lahore. Different formulations of both plants were prepared using methanol, ethanol, water, n-hexane, deep-eutectic methanol, deep-eutectic ethanol, and deep-eutectic water designated as F1-F7 respectively. Highest zone of inhibition (38) mm was seen by F5 of P1 against P. aeruginosa followed by F1, F6, F2, F7 and F3 (35, 34, 32, 30 and 28 mm) respectively. Likewise, the ZI was also higher (24 mm) by F5 of P2 against P. aeruginosa and the lowest ZI (15 mm) by same plant was seen by F3. There was no clear inhibition of growth by F4 against all bacterial species. The second higher ZI was also seen by F5 (35) mm against S. aureus followed by F1, F6, F2, F7 and F3 (32, 31, 29, 28 and 25) mm. Furthermore, ZI was also higher by F5 of P1 and P2 (31 and 17 mm) against E. coli followed by F1, F6, F2, F7 and F3 for P1 (29, 28, 26, 25 and 22 mm). Growth inhibition of all the formulations (F1, F6, F2, F7 and F3) by P2 was in same pattern against E. coli. F5 showed higher ZI against A. baumannii for both P1 and P2 (29 and 14) mm and (24 and 10 mm) against K. pneumonia. Therefore di-eutectic methanolic extracts of both plant had greater potential to control the bacterial growth so could be used for antibacterial applications against any of the five bacterial strains. 

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