INVESTIGATING THE INTERCONNECTEDNESS BETWEEN METABOLIC ABNORMALITIES AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISKS, AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR COMPREHENSIVE PATIENT

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Sudhair Abbas Bangash
S. Jayalakshmi M.E
Dr. Adut Matik
Ashneil Eugene Drummond
Muzaiyyena Qureshi
Sumbul Khan

Keywords

Metabolic surgery, surgery and metabolic syndrome, syndrome X, mini gastric bypass, the bypass of an anastomosis, Roux-en-Y bypass, bariatric surgery

Abstract

The term metabolic syndrome (MS) has been used since its definition in 2001 by the National Cholesterol Program (NCEP: ATP III). The concept has been discussed in the scientific literature for decades. Syndrome X and other terms such as "the death quartet" and insulin resistance syndrome have been used to describe the association between metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. In Lahore, the prevalence of MS in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) was 34% in 2010 and  41% in 2022. Lifestyle modifications, increased physical activity, smoking cessation, and limiting alcohol intake are paramount for management and prevention because they play a central role in metabolic abnormalities. However, despite the impressive armamentarium of medications available for Diabetes, it has been reported that up to 50% of patients do not achieve adequate control goals, as defined by the American Diabetes Association (glycosylated hemoglobin <7%). In contrast, bariatric surgery (BMS) has been confirmed to contribute to improved beta cell function in patients with a body mass index (BMI) >35 kg/m2, as well as the control of dyslipidemia and other metabolic disorder.

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