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Muhammad Nouman Majeed
Asif Khan
Dr. Hira Amin
Bijaya Bhattarai
Dr. Abdul Wadood Kakar
Dr. Adut Matik
Subhan Haider
Mr. V. Sampath
Rubaiya Tabassum
Tariq Rafique


Diabetes, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, atherogenesis, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress



Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a predominant concern for individuals diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, representing a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This review delves into the complex interplay between diabetes and cardiovascular problems, offering insights into preventative interventions and treatment strategies.


Drawing from current research, this comprehensive review evaluates methods to reduce cardiovascular risk in individuals with diabetes. The analysis focuses on insulin resistance as a pivotal factor linking diabetes to CVD, leading to dyslipidemia and atherogenesis, thereby elevating the risk of cardiovascular events.


Patients with diabetes face an increased risk of cardiovascular events due to the intricate relationship between insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and atherogenesis. Moreover, hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to endothelial dysfunction, fostering vascular damage and elevating the risk of cardiovascular issues. The correlation between diabetes and CVD accelerates atherosclerotic plaque formation, rendering the plaque more prone to rupture and causing severe cardiovascular problems like myocardial infarction and stroke.


Understanding the nuanced connection between diabetes and cardiovascular disease is paramount for developing effective interventions. This narrative review synthesizes evidence-based preventative measures and treatment choices, providing valuable insights for healthcare practitioners. The aim is to enhance patient outcomes, improve quality of life, and reduce mortality rates in individuals with diabetes and coexisting CVD. The review serves as a comprehensive resource for healthcare professionals and academics, laying the groundwork for innovative approaches in diabetes management through an in-depth exploration of current research and underlying processes.

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