DELVE INTO THE SYNTHESIS AND CHEMISTRY OF PHYTOCANNABINOIDS, EMPHASIZING THEIR POTENTIAL AS THERAPEUTIC ALTERNATIVES FOR NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS, INCLUDING ALZHEIMER

Main Article Content

Sudhair Abbas Bangash
Bilal tayab
Mr. Hassan Saleemi
Saba Nosheen
Mishaal Chaudhary
Yaseen

Keywords

Cannabidiol, Tetrahydrocannabinol, Alzheimer's Disease, Treatment

Abstract

Introduction: Alzheimer's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative condition, induces memory loss and cognitive impairments, posing significant challenges for patients, families, and caregivers. Cannabidiol (CBD), derived from cannabis, exhibits neuroprotective properties and influences cognition and behavior. Its therapeutic potential in Alzheimer's treatment is increasingly recognized, aiming to alleviate symptoms and improve patient outcomes.


Objectives: This study aims to conduct an integrative review of cannabinoids' effects, particularly CBD, in treating Alzheimer's disease.


Methods: An integrative literature review was conducted to explore the impact of cannabis-based treatments on Alzheimer's patients. Key health science databases such as LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were systematically searched using relevant descriptors (e.g., Cannabidiol, Tetrahydrocannabinol, Alzheimer's, Treatment).


Results: Forty studies were identified from selected databases, with 37 meeting eligibility criteria for inclusion in this review.


Discussion: CBD emerges as a complementary therapeutic option for managing neurological symptoms in Alzheimer's disease. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) demonstrates potential in altering patients' static balance and improving gait parameters. Other cannabinoids like cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabichromene (CBC) exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticonvulsant properties, respectively. However, further research is warranted to validate their efficacy in psychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease.


Conclusion: Phytocannabinoids exhibit promising neuroprotective effects in various neuropsychological conditions, including Alzheimer's disease. Although the use of cannabinoids shows tolerability among patients, rigorous studies are necessary to establish their true effectiveness and benefits in dementia management.

Abstract 255 | PDF Downloads 63

References

1. Abroudi, M., Mehrabani, D., Zare, S., Jamhiri, I., Hamzavai, M., Sadat Masoumi, S., . . . Karimi-Busheri, F. (2024). Apoptosis and Differential Potential of Dental Pulp Stem Cells, When Marijuana Is Added to Nutrients of Cell Culture Medium. International Journal of Nutrition Sciences.
2. Al-Khazaleh, A. K., Zhou, X., Bhuyan, D. J., Münch, G. W., Al-Dalabeeh, E. A., Jaye, K., & Chang, D. (2024). The Neurotherapeutic Arsenal in Cannabis sativa: Insights into Anti-Neuroinflammatory and Neuroprotective Activity and Potential Entourage Effects. Molecules, 29(2), 410.
3. Ansari, A. H., Singh, D., & Singh, S. (2024). Effect of plant-based diets on the brain Nutraceutical Fruits and Foods for Neurodegenerative Disorders (pp. 249-260): Elsevier.
4. Arthur, P., Kalvala, A. K., Surapaneni, S. K., & Singh, M. S. (2024). Applications of cannabinoids in neuropathic pain: an updated review. Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, 41(1).
5. Artimagnella, O., Mazzon, E., Salamone, S., Pollastro, F., Gugliandolo, A., & Chiricosta, L. (2024). Cannabinerol (CBNR) Influences Synaptic Genes Associated with Cytoskeleton and Ion Channels in NSC-34 Cell Line: A Transcriptomic Study. Biomedicines, 12(1), 189.
6. Calleja, A., Szijj, J. V., Serracino-Inglott, A., & Azzopardi, L. M. (2024). Knowledge and perceptions about Cannabidiol use. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 14(1), 113-120.
7. Chang, B., Niu, C., & Jiang, Y. (2024). Xanthine or hypoxanthine or both may play therapeutical effect in Parkinson's disease through the endocannabinoid system. Medical Hypotheses, 182, 111231.
8. Cherninskyi, A., Hermann, D. M., Lukyanetz, E., & Krishtal, O. (2024). Global excellence in cellular neuropathology: Ukraine. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience.
9. Delgado-Sequera, A., Garcia-Mompo, C., Gonzalez-Pinto, A. M., Maria, H.-F., & Esther, B. (2024). A Systematic Review of the Molecular and Cellular Alterations Induced by Cannabis that may serve as Risk Factors for Bipolar Disorder. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, pyae002.
10. Duncan, R. S., Riordan, S. M., Gernon, M. C., & Koulen, P. (2024). Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids as therapeutics for nervous system disorders: preclinical models and clinical studies. Neural Regeneration Research, 19(4), 788-799.
11. Gujarathi, N. A., Aher, A. A., Sukhia, A., Patil, T. S., Goyal, Y. S., & Keservani, R. K. (2024). Nutraceutical interventions in Alzheimer's disease Nutraceutical Fruits and Foods for Neurodegenerative Disorders (pp. 379-404): Elsevier.
12. Guo, Y., Wei, R., Deng, J., & Guo, W. (2024). Research progress in the management of vascular disease with cannabidiol: a review. Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, 19(1), 1-11.
13. Gupta, P., Singh, A., Shafi, S., Ralli, T., Pottoo, F. H., Sultana, Y., & Kohli, K. (2024). Cannabis sativa in Phytotherapy: Reappraisal of Therapeutic Potential and Regulatory Aspects. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 25(1), 58-76.
14. Karimi, S. A., Zahra, F. T., & Martin, L. J. (2024). IUPHAR Review: Navigating the role of preclinical models in pain research. Pharmacological Research, 107073.
15. Lahyaoui, M., Bouyahya, A., El Menyiy, N., Bakrim, S., & Dakka, N. (2024). Neuroprotection induced by terpenes: focus on Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease Natural Molecules in Neuroprotection and Neurotoxicity (pp. 1669-1678): Elsevier.
16. Laws III, J. S., & Smid, S. D. (2024). Characterizing cannabis-prevalent terpenes for neuroprotection reveal a role for α and β-pinenes in mitigating amyloid β-evoked neurotoxicity and aggregation in vitro. Neurotoxicology, 100, 16-24.
17. Loan, A., Syal, C., Lui, M., He, L., & Wang, J. (2024). Promising use of metformin in treating neurological disorders: biomarker-guided therapies. Neural Regeneration Research, 19(5), 1045-1055.
18. Modi, C., Prajapati, B. G., Singh, S., Singh, A., & Maheshwari, S. (2024). Dendrimers in the management of Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's Disease and Advanced Drug Delivery Strategies (pp. 235-251): Elsevier.
19. Nayak, V., Patra, S., Rout, S., Jena, A. B., Sharma, R., Pattanaik, K. P., . . . Majhi, S. (2024). Regulation of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease via nanoparticle-loaded phytocompounds with anti-inflammatory and autophagy-inducing properties. Phytomedicine, 122, 155150.
20. Pandey, K., & Hoda, W. (2024). Cannabinoids in anaesthesia and chronic pain: Where do we stand? Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia, 18(1), 100-104.
21. Patel, A., Paliwal, H., Sawant, K., & Prajapati, B. G. (2024). Micro and nanoemulsion as drug carriers in Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's Disease and Advanced Drug Delivery Strategies (pp. 319-345): Elsevier.
22. Pereira, I. F., Santos Oliveira, A. M., Santos, A. M., de Melo Soares, D., Serafini, M. R., & Almeida Alves, I. (2024). A Descriptive Review of Cannabis sativa Patents for Cancer Treatment. Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery, 19(2), 137-145.
23. Pinapati, K. K., Vidya, S., Khan, M. F., Mandal, D., & Banerjee, S. (2024). Gut bacteria, endocannabinoid system, and marijuana addiction: Novel therapeutic implications. Health Sciences Review, 10, 100144.
24. Pyka, P., Haberek, W., Więcek, M., Szymanska, E., Ali, W., Cios, A., . . . Di Giacomo, S. (2024). First-in-Class Selenium-Containing Potent Serotonin Receptor 5-HT6 Agents with a Beneficial Neuroprotective Profile against Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.
25. Ross-Munro, E., Isikgel, E., & Fleiss, B. (2024). Evaluation of the efficacy of a full-spectrum medicinal cannabis plant extract with less than 0.3% Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in in vitro models of inflammation and excitotoxicity. bioRxiv, 2024.2001. 2010.575133.
26. Silva, M. H. (2024). Neurotoxicity and neuroprotection induced by plant-derived cannabinoids Natural Molecules in Neuroprotection and Neurotoxicity (pp. 831-873): Elsevier.
27. Suzuki, S., Wakano, C., Monteilh-Zoller, M. K., Cullen, A. J., Fleig, A., & Penner, R. (2024). Cannabigerolic Acid (CBGA) inhibits the TRPM7 ion channel through its kinase domain. Function, 5(1), zqad069.
28. Tamaddonfard, S., Erfanparast, A., Tamaddonfard, E., & Soltanalinejad, F. (2024). The CB1 cannabinoid receptors involvement in anti-epileptic effect of safranal on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. Paper presented at the Veterinary Research Forum.
29. Teixeira, A. L., Rocha, N. P., & Gatchel, J. (2024). Behavioral or neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer's disease: from psychopathology to pharmacological management. Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria, 81, 1152-1162.
30. Tsiogkas, S. G., Apostolopoulou, K., Papagianni, E. D., Mavropoulos, A., Dardiotis, E., Zafiriou, E., & Bogdanos, D. P. (2024). Cannabidiol Mediates In Vitro Attenuation of Proinflammatory Cytokine Responses in Psoriatic Disease. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research.
31. Tyagi, S., Awasthi, R., Dhiman, N., Sharma, B., & Kulkarni, G. T. (2024). Herbal Medicines for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders Ethnic Knowledge and Perspectives of Medicinal Plants (pp. 489-514): Apple Academic Press.
32. Wang, B., Sui, Y., Liu, X., Ren, Y., & Ma, Z. (2024). Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 inhibits LPS-induced neuroinflammation via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in mice.
33. Wilds, K. M., & Riddell, J. R. (2024). Cannabis Policy and Consumption: Taking into account Substitution Effects. Substance Use & Misuse, 59(1), 97-109.
34. Yang, W., Gong, X., Sun, H., Wu, C., Suo, J., Ji, J., . . . Aisa, H. A. (2024). Discovery of a CB2 and 5-HT1A receptor dual agonist for the treatment of depression and anxiety. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 265, 116048.
35. Yu, X., Jia, Y., & Dong, Y. (2024). Research progress on the cannabinoid type-2 receptor and Parkinson’s disease. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.
36. Zarouki, M. A., Tamegart, L., Hejji, L., Ali, Y. A. E. H., El Ayadi, A., Villarejo, L. P., . . . Azzouz, A. (2024). Graphene quantum dots based on cannabis seeds for efficient wound healing in a mouse incisional wound model: Link with stress and neurobehavioral effect. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 649, 123658.
37. Zhang, Q., Zhao, Y., Wu, J., Zhong, W., Huang, W., & Pan, Y. (2024). The progress of small molecules against cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2R). Bioorganic Chemistry, 107075.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>