Main Article Content

Mo. Faisal H. Gotajiwala
Mo. Faisal H. Gotajiwala
Kuntupalli Sandhya Rani
Dr. Pragnesh Patani


Jasmine, Neem Leaves and Harit Pan


Phytochemicals are natural compounds found in plants that hold immense significance for human health. These bioactive substances encompass a diverse array of compounds, such as flavonoids, polyphenols, and alkaloids, which contribute to the vibrant colors, flavors, and protective mechanisms of various plant species. Beyond their potential in managing common cold symptoms. These compounds include flavonoids, polyphenols, and alkaloids, among others. Research suggests that phytochemical-rich foods like garlic, ginger, and echinacea may possess antiviral and immune- boosting properties, which could help alleviate common cold symptoms.

Abstract 131 | pdf Downloads 72


1. Lauber B., “The common cold”, J Gen Intern Med 1996;11:229–236.

2. Blueston E.C.D., Connell J.T., Doyle W.J. Symposium, “Questioning the efficacy and safety of antihistamines in the treatment of upper respiratory infection”, Journal of Pediatric Infectious Disease. 1988;7:215–242.
3. Thompkins R.K., “ The effectiveness and cost of acute respiratory illness”, Medical care provided by physicians. Med Care, 1977;15:991–1103.
4. Winther B (1997), P. Van Cauwenberge P, Wang D-Y, Ingels K et al, “Pathogenesis of viral induced rhinitis”, (eds) The Nose Kugler Publications Amsterdam,135-140.
5. Brooks GF, Butel JS, Ornston LN (1991) Medical Microbiology, 19th edition, Appleton & Lange Publishers.
6. Rossman MG, Palmenberg AC (1988), “Conservation of the putative receptor attachment site in picornaviruses”, Virol 164:373-382.
7. Staunton DE, Merluzzi VS (1989), “A cell adhesion molecule, ICAM-1, is the major surface receptor for rhinoviruses”,Cell 56:849-853.
8. Arrunda E, Boyle TR, Winther B et al.,(1995), “ Localisation of human rhinovirus replication in the upper respiratory tract by in situ hybridization”, J Infect Dis 171:1329-1333.
9. Turner RB, Winther B, Henley JO et al., (1984), “Sites of virus recovery and antigen detection in epithelial cells during experimental rhinovirus infection”, Acta Otolaryngol,(Suppl) 413:9-14.
10. Turner RB, “Epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of the common cold”, Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 78: 531-540, 1997.
11. Gwaltney JM Jr, Hendley JO, “Transmission of experimental rhinovirus infection by contaminated surfaces”, Am J Epidemiol 116: 828-833, 1982.
12. Hendley JO, Gwaltney JM Jr, “Mechanisms of transmission of rhinovirus infections”, Epidemiol Rev 10: 243-258, 1988.
13. Medically reviewed by Nancy Choi, M.D. — By Michael Paddock https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/166606.
14. Vasmehjani, A.A.; Darabi, Z.; Nadjarzadeh, A.; Mirzaei, M.; Hosseinzadeh, M., “The relation between dietary phytochemical indexand metabolic syndrome and its components in a large sample of Iranian adults: A population-based study”, BMC Public Health 2021, 21, 1587.
15. Mendoza, N.; Silva, E.M.E., “Introduction to phytochemicals: Secondary metabolites from plants with active principles for pharmacological importance”, In Phytochemicals: Source of Antioxidants and Role in Disease Prevention; Asao, T., Asaduzzaman, M.,Eds.; IntechOpen: London, UK, 2018; pp. 25–47.
16. Lara, M.V.; Bonghi, C.; Famiani, F.; Vizzotto, G.; Walker, R.P.; Drincovich, M.F. Stone, “Fruit as Biofactories of Phytochemicals with Potential Roles in Human Nutrition and Health”, Front. Plant Sci. 2020, 11, 562252.
17. Liu, R.H., “Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: Mechanism of action”, J. Nutr. 2004, 134, 3479S–3485S.
18. Carrera-Quintanar, L.; LópezRoa, R.I.; Quintero-Fabián, S.; Sánchez-Sánchez, M.A.; Vizmanos, B.; Ortuño-Sahagún, “Phytochemicals that influence gut microbiota as prophylactics and for the treatment of obesity and inflammatory diseases”, Mediat. Inflamm. 2018, 2018, 9734845.
19. C.J. Dillard and J.B. German, “Review Phytochemicals: nutraceuticals and human health”, J. Sci. Food Agri., 80, 1744-1756, 2000.
20. S.N. Nichenametla, T.G. Taruscio, D.L. Barney and J.H. Exon, “A review of the effects and mechanism of polyphenolics in cancer”, Critical Rev. Food Sci. Nut., 46,161-183, 2006.
21. Li, P.; Xu, G.; Li, S.-P.; Wang, Y.-T.; Fan, T.-P.; Zhao, Q.-S.; Zhang, Q.-W., “Optimizing Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatographic Analysis of 10 Diterpenoid Compounds in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Using Central Composite Design”, J. Agric. Food Chem, 2008, 56, 1164–1171.
22. Mordeniz, C., “Integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine into Evidence-Based Clinical Practice”, In Traditional and Complementary Medicine; IntechOpen: London, UK, 2019.

23. Zhang, Q.-W.; Lin, L.-G.; Ye, W.-C., “Techniques for Extraction and Isolation of Natural Products: A Comprehensive Review”, Chin. Med. 2018, 13, 20.
24. Velavan, S., “Phytochemicals Techniques—A Review”, World J. Sci. Res. 2015, 1, 80–91.
25. Ingle KP, Deshmukh AG, Padole DA, Dudhare MS, Moharil MP, Khelurkar VC., “Phytochemicals: Extraction methods, identification, and detection of bioactive compounds from plant extracts”, J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2017;6:32–6.
26. Azwanida NN., “A review on the extraction methods use in medicinal plants, principle, strength, and limitation”, Med Aromat Plants, 2015;4:196.
27. Pandey A, Tripathi S. Concept of standardization, extraction, and pre-phytochemical screening strategies for herbal drug. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2014;2:115–9.
28. Majekodunmi SO. Review of extraction of medicinal plants for pharmaceutical research. MRJMMS. 2015;3:521–7.
29. Hossain MA, Al-Hdhrami SS, Weli AM, Al-Riyami Q, Al-Sabahi JN., “Isolation, fractionation and identification of chemical constituents from the leaves crude extracts of Mentha piperita”, L grown in sultanate of Oman. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2014;4:S368–72.
30. Sutar N, Garai R, Sharma US, Sharma UK., “Anthelmintic activity of Platycladus orientalis leaves extract”, International Journal of Parasitology Research, 2010; 2(2):1-3.
31. Altemimi A, Lakhssassi N, Baharlouei A, Watson DG, Lightfoot DA., “Phytochemicals: Extraction, isolation, and identification of bioactive compounds from plant extracts”, Plants. 2017;6:42.
32. Handa, S.; Khanuja, S.; Longo, G.; Rakesh, D., “Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants”, International Centre for Science and High Technology; Trieste, Italy, 2008; pp. 21–25.
33. Lu, M.; Ho, C.T.; Huang, Q., “Extraction, Bioavailability and Bioefficacy of Capsaicinoids”, J. Food Drug Anal, 2017, 25, 27–36.
34. Edwin JE, Edwin JS., “Color Atlas of Medicinal Plants”, New Delhi: CBS Publishers and Distributors, 2006:156-157.
35. Frank SD, Amelio SR., “A Phyto Cosmetic Desk Reference: Botanicals”, London: CRC Press,
1999: 138.
36. Kulkarni PH, Ansari Shahida., “The Ayurvedic Plants Indian Medical Science series No. 132”, New Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, Indological and Oriental Publications A division of Book centre, 2004: 191.
37. http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Royal%20Jasmine.html
38. P. Rajasri Bharathi, Shubashini K. Sripathi * and A. Naga Lakshmi, “JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM LINN. – AN UPDATE REVIEW”, May 2020International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research; 11(5):1994-2010
39. Lis-Balchin, Hart SM, Lo BWH., “Jasmine absolute (Jasminum grandiflorum L.) and its mode of action on guinea-pig ileum in vitro”, Phytotherapy Research 2002; 16(5): 437-439.
40. Fulzele SV, Sattkrwar PM, Joshi SB, Dorle AK, “Studies on anti-inflammatory Activity of a poly herbal formulation – Jatyadi ghrita”, Indian Drugs 2002; 39(1): 42-44.
41. Kumar GS, Khanam S., “Anti-acne activity of Natural products”, Indian J Nat Prod 2004; 30(4): 7-9.
42. Joshi SG. Oleaceae: Medicinal Plants.New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, 2000: 298–300.
43. Federico F, Clara G, Angel G, Patrica V and Paula BA: “Assessing Jasminum grandiflorum L. authenticity by HPLC – DAD – ESI / MSn and effects on physiological enzymes and oxidative species”, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 2014; 88: 157-61
44. 48. Radha R, Aarthi CK, Santhoshkumar V and Thangakamatchi G: “Pharmacognostical, phytochemical and anthelmintic activity on flowers of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. (Oleaceae)”, International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 2016; 3(10): 455-60.

45. Sandeep S, Padmaa PM, Saikat S, Raja, Angad V and Sridhar C: “Evaluation of analgesic activity of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn leaf extracts”, Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry, 2011; 5(1): 22-25.
46. Mittal Arun 1, Sardana Satish 2, Pandey Anima 3, “Phytopharmacological Profile of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. (Oleaceae)”, Chin J Integr Med, 2016 Apr;22(4):311-20.
47. Ogbuewu IP, Odoemenam VU, Obikaonu HO, Opara MN, et al., “The growing importance of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in agriculture, industry,medicine and environment: a review”, Res J Med Plants, 2011;5:230-45
48. Girish K., “Neem S. B. S. A green treasure”, Electronic Journal of Biology, 2008;4:102– 111.http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Neem.html
49. Akash Gupta, Shagufta Ansari, Siddharth Gupta, et.al, “Therapeutics role of neem and its bioactive constituents in disease prevention and treatment”, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2019; 8(3): 680-691.
50. 19. Kaur G, Sarwar Alam M, Athar M., “Nimbidin suppresses functions of macrophages and neutrophils: Relevance to its antiinflammatory mechanisms”, Phytother Res 2004;18:419‑24.
51. Osunwoke EA, Olotu EJ, Allison TA, Onyekwere JC., “The wound healing effects of aqueous leave extracts of Azadirachta indicaon wistar rats”, J Nat Sci Res 2013;3:181‑6.
52. Durrani FR, Chand N, Jan M, Sultan A, Durrani Z, Akhtar S.,“Immunomodulatory and growth promoting effects of neem leaves infusion in broiler chicks”, Sarhad J Agric 2008;24:655‑9.
53. Peer PA, Trivedi PC, Nigade PB, Ghaisas MM, Deshpande AD., “Cardioprotective effect of Azadirachta indica A. juss. on isoprenaline induced myocardial infarction in rats”, Int J Cardiol 2008;126:123‑6.
54. Natarajan V, Venugopal PV, Menon T., “Effect of Azadirachta indica (neem) on the growth pattern of dermatophytes”, Indian J Med Microbiol 2003;21:98‑101.
55. Dholi SK, Ramakrishna R, Mankala SK, Nagappan K. In vivo antidiabetic evaluation of neem leaf extract in Alloxan induced rats. J Appl Pharmaceut Sci 2011;7:100‑5.
56. R Subapriya1 , S Nagini, “Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review”, National Library of Medicine, 2005 Mar;5(2):149-6.
57. J.-H. Kim, M.-J. Kim, S.-K. Choi, S.-H. Bae, S.-K. An, Y.-M. Yoon. (2011), “Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of lemon and eucalyptus essential oils against skin floras”, Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea, 37(4): 303-308.
58. https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Vernacular-names-of-Eucalyptus-lobulus_tbl1_352056276
59. Zhi Long Liu*, Meng Yu, Xiao Mei Li, Tao Wan and Sha Sha Chu, “Repellent Activity of Eight Essential Oils of Chinese Medicinal Herbs to Blattella germanica L”, ACG Publication Rec. Nat. Prod. 5:3 (2011) 176-183.
60. Chevallier A. Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. St. Leonards, New South Wales, Australia: DK Publishing 2001.
61. Williams LR, Stockley JK, Yan W, Home VN., “Essential oils with high antimicrobial activity for therapeutic use”, Int J Aromather 1998; 8(4):30-9.
62. Ait-Ouazzou A, Lorán S, Bakkali M, et al., “Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Thymus algeriensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis from Morocco”, J Sci Food Agric 2011; 91(14): 2643-51.
63. Juergens UR, Stöber M, Vetter H., “Inhibition of cytokine production and arachidonic acid metabolism by eucalyptol (1.8-cineole) in humanblood monocytes in vitro”, Eur J Med Res 1998; 3(11): 508-10.
64. Packer L, Cadenas E, Davies KJ., “Free radicals and exercise: an introduction”, Free Radic Biol Med 2008; 44(2): 123-5.
65. Benyahia S, Benayache S, Benayache F, et al., “Cladocalol, a pentacyclic 28-nor-triterpene from Eucalyptus cladocalyx with cytotoxic activity”, Phytochemistry 2005; 66(6): 627-32.

66. Artwell Kanda1, France Ncube2, Takudzwa K Goronga3, “Trace Elements in Leaf Extracts of Eucalyptus grandis Traditionally Used to Treat Common Cold and Flu”, National Library of Medicine, 2019 Dec 6;9(24):191214.
67. Ashok K Dhakad 1, Vijay V Pandey 2, Sobia Beg 3, Janhvi M Rawat 3, Avtar Singh 1, “Biological, medicinal and toxicological significance of Eucalyptus leaf essential oil: a review”, National Library of Medicine, 2018 Feb;98(3):833-848.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>