IDENTIFICATION OF THYROID ABNORMALITIES AMONG HEPATITIS B & C PATIENTS AND ITS INVOLVEMENT WITH INTERFERON THERAPY

Main Article Content

Ibrar Ahmad
Muhammad Fayaz
Hamid Ali
Marium Khan
Shaista Jabeen
Wajeeha Wajid
Hammad Ahmad
Mehboob Ali
Tooba Wajid
Muhammad Salman
Mian Sami Ullah
Hamza Hameed

Keywords

Interferon, HCV, HBV

Abstract

The liver infections are the major cause of increasing mortality rate throughout the world. Liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cause an estimated 783,000 and 619,000 deaths per year respectively. Thyroid dysfunction (TD) represents an extrahepatic manifestation of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Moreover, the currently approved treatment of CHC is often associated with TD. However, it remains debatable if TD is mainly virus or treatment related. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of TD and to identify its predictors in treated and untreated CHC‑infected patients. Aim of current work was to explore the effect of interferon therapy on the thyroid profile of viral hepatic patients. A total of 150(are those patients who received therapy and 50 is the control group which is given below) HBV and HCV patients who were receiving peg interferon therapy were assessed for the thyroid profile against 50 patients of untreated viral hepatic control group. Thyroid profile was relatively higher in younger patients (20-30 years) as compared to control group. A higher level of thyroid hormone was observed in age group of 20 to 30 (30.71%) among the exploratory and control group. Female patients show slight elevation in thyroid profile in contrast to male patients. The observed value of certain thyroid hormones was hyperthyroidism is about 28% in HCV patients, followed by hypothyroidism 24% and similarly euthyroidism developed in 48% of patients while in HBV patients the hyperthyroidism was noted 35%, hypothyroidism was 21% and euthyroidism was observed 44% the current result how that hypothyroidism in HBV is about 21% and HCV is 24%,hyper thyroidism in  HBV is 35% and HCV is about 28%.,euthyroidism in HBV is noted 44% and HCV 48%.Our study suggests that the thyroid profile values in different age wise distribution T3 and T4 value were noted high in group 15-25 Years, T4 and TSH values are raised in group 26-35 followed by group 36-45 and 46-55 Years. While T4 value was raised in 56-65 Year group.

Abstract 262 | pdf Downloads 77

References

1. Ahmad, S. U., Khan, M. S., Jan, Z., Khan, N., Ali, A., Rehman, N., ... & Zahir, F. (2021). Genome wide association study and phylogenetic analysis of novel SARS-COV-2 virus among different countries. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 34(4).
2. Zahir, F., Haq, I., Haq, M., Khan, A. S., Naushad, W., Rajab, H., ... & Munir, I. (2021). Epidemiological characteristics and genetic diversity of clinically isolated dengue vector in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, 12, 100863.
3. Anwar, F., Khan, M., Salman, M., Ahmad, S., Ullah, F., Khan, J., ... & Abbas, M. (2021). Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus in human population of district Buner Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, 10, 100688.
4. ul Haq, I., Khan, M., Rehman, Z., Anwar, F., Ullah, H., & Ullah, N. (2018). HBV prevalence in the volunteer blood donors in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Int J Biosci, 13(5), 50-54.
5. Ali, S., Mahmood, N., Afridi, J. Z., Jalil, F., Haq, I. U., Ali, I., ... & Ahmad, B. HCV prevalence in the volunteer blood donors in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
6. Haq, I., Zahir, F., Haq, M., Zaman, R., Khan, A. M. K., Rehman, N., ... & Ahmad, Z. (2022). Molecular and Epidemiological Evaluation of Liver Function Diagnosis between Different Genotypes of HBV and HCV in Non-Responders of HBV-HCV Co-Infected Patients with Healthy Controls. Pakistan Journal of Medical & Health Sciences, 16(03), 827-827.
7. Haq, I., Shah, R., Aleem, U., Sher, M., Khalid, F., Ateeq, M., ... & Raza, I. (2022). Prevalence Of Hematological Side Effects Of Ribavirin Plus Pegylated Interferon Combination Therapy In Chronic Hepatitis C Treated Patients. NVEO-NATURAL VOLATILES & ESSENTIAL OILS Journal| NVEO, 1970-1974.
8. Qamar, Z., Anwar, F., Ahmad, R., Haq, I., Khan, A. M. K., Hussain, R., ... & Khan, J. (2021). Prevalence of Hepatitis C virus and determination of its genotypes in subjects of Tehsil Daggar District Buner, KP, Pakistan. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, 12, 100809.
9. Shah, I. A., Anwar, F., Haq, I. U., Anwar, Y., Aizaz, M., & Ullah, N. (2018). HBV burden on population, a comparative study between two districts Mardan and Charsadda of KPK, Pakistan. International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review, 9(09), 20269-20274.
10. Rehman, A. U., Anwar, F., Tayyab, M., Haq, I., Haq, M., Ahmed, A., ... & Khan, A. S. (2022). Incidence of Dengue fever, serotypes, clinical features, and laboratory markers: a case study of 2019 outbreak at district Shangla, KP, Pakistan. African Health Sciences, 22(1), 521-31.
11. Antonelli A, Ferri C, Fallahi P.,2009. Hepatitis C: thyroid dysfunction in patients with hepatitis C on IFN-alpha therapy. Nat RevGastroenterolHepatol;6:633–635.
12. Braira, SS., Yuan, S.X., Yang, F., Yang, Y., Tao, Q.F., Zhang, J., Huang, G., Yang, Y., Wang, R.Y., Yang, S., Huo, X.S. and Zhang, L., 2012. Long noncoding RNA associated with microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma promotes angiogenesis andserves as a predictor for hepatocellular carcinoma patients' poor recurrence‐free survival after hepatectomy. Hepatology, 56(6), pp.2231-2241.
13. Chevaliez S, Pawlotsky JM., 2007. Hepatitis C virus: Virology, diagnosis and management of antiviral therapy. World J Gastroenterol.;13(17):2461-6.
14. Corssmit, E. P., Heyligenberg, R., Endert, E., Sauerwein, H. P., &Romijn, J. A., 1995. Acute effects of interferon-alpha administration on thyroid hormone metabolism in healthy men. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 80(11), 3140-3144.
15. Costelloe SJ, Wassef N, Schulz J, Vaghijiani T, Morris C.,2010.Thyroid dysfunction in a UK hepatitis C population treated with interferon-alpha and ribavirin combination therapy. Clin. Endocrinol (Oxf). 73(2): 249–56.
16. Custro, N., Montalto, G., Scafidi, V., Soresi, M., Gallo, S., Tripi, S., &Notarbartolo, A.,1997. Prospective study on thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction related to chronic hepatitis C and interferon therapy. Journal of endocrinological investigation, 20(7), 374-380.
17. Fredlund, P., Hillson, J., Gray, T., Shemanski, L., Dimitrova, D., & Srinivasan, S. (2015). Peginterferon lambda-1a is associated with a low incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease in chronic hepatitis C. Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research, 35(11), 841-843.
18. Friedrich RM, Theobald J, Zenzem S, Bojunga J.,2009. Thyroid function and changes in ultrasound morphology during antiviral therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavarin in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepatitis.;16168-77.
19. Ghany MG, Strader DB, Thomas DL, Seeff LB.,2009. Diagnosis, man¬agement, and treatment of hepatitis C: an update. Hepatology.;49(4):1335-74.
20. Hanafiah, K.M., Groeger, J., Flaxman, A.D. and Wiersma, S.T., 2013. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: new estimates of age‐specific antibody to HCV seroprevalence. Hepatology, 57(4), pp.1333-1342.
21. Hsieh, M. C., Yu, M. L., Chuang, W. L., Shin, S. J., Dai, C. Y., Chen, S. C., ... & Chang, W. Y. (2000). Virologic factors related to interferon-a-induced thyroid dysfunction in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Eur J Endocrinol, 142(5), 431-7.
22. Imtiaz, M. A., Prathima, M. B., Reshma, S., & Monteiro, F. N. (2015). Inter-relationship between thyroid and renal profile in overt hypothyroidism. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences, 4(91), 15609-15612.
23. Kadri, K. (2019). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR): principle and applications. In Synthetic Biology-New Interdisciplinary Science. IntechOpen.
24. Kee, K. M., Lee, C. M., Wang, J. H., Tung, H. D., Changchien, C. S., Lu, S. N., & Wang, P. W. (2006). Thyroid dysfunction in patients with chronic hepatitis C receiving a combined therapy of interferon and ribavirin: incidence, associated factors and prognosis. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, 21(1), 319-326.
25. Lavanchy D.,2011.Evolving epidemiology of hepatitis C virus. Clinical microbiology and infection: the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.; 17(2):107–15,.
26. Maguid, M. M. A., Eed, K. A. A., Mostafa, H. M., Saleh, M. A. K., & El-Azab, D. S. (2016). Interferon-Alpha and Ribavirin-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction in Chronic Hepatitis C Egyptian Patients: Incidence and Association. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci, 5(5), 54-62.
27. Mandac JC, Chaudhry S, Sherman KE, Tomer Y.,2006.The clinical and physiological spectrum of interferon-alpha induced thyroiditis: toward a new classification. Hepatology. 43:661-72,.
28. Pavan, M. H. P., Pavin, E. J., Gonçales Jr, F. L., and Zantut-Wittmann, D. E., 2011. Virus C genotype predisposes to primary hypothyroidism during interferon-α treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 449-456.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>