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Muhammad Farman
Maria Masood
Laiba Zia
Muzzamil Khan
Muhammad Ateeq
Zia-Ur-Rehman Farooqi


Shivering, Factors, Cesarian section, Spinal Anesthesia


The object of this study was to determine the magnitude and associated factors of intraoperative shivering after cesarean section under spinal anesthesia in the operation theater of tertiary care hospitals (RMI and HMC Peshawar). It was conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynecology OT of tertiary care hospitals, (RMI and HMC) Peshawar, KPK. The duration of this study was 6 months (1st July, 2022 –20th December, 2022). The total sample size was 295, which was calculated by the non-defined population formula and the data was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Finally, the data was analyzed on SPSS version 26.A number of 295 participants were included in the study, out of which 127 experienced shivering. The total incidence of shivering was 43.1% and the factors contributing to shivering were Body mass index, maternal comorbidities (hypertension, asthma, obesity), room temperature, premedication, duration of preoperative fasting, bupivacaine dose were associated with shivering in multivariate logistic regression having P-value<0.05. Type of fluid (crystalloid or Colloid), oxygen saturation during surgery, dose of oxytocin and incidence of nausea were significantly associated with shivering in the bivariate logistic regression with P-value< 0.000. The frequency of intraoperative shivering after caesarean section delivery under spinal anesthesia was comparable to many studies i.e., 43.1%. The factors that mainly contributed to intraoperative shivering were Type of fluid, oxygen saturation during surgery, dose of oxytocin and incidence of nausea. The peak incidence of shivering in our study was recorded in less than five minutes after caesarean delivery

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