Main Article Content

Asad Ullah
Maryam Begum
Saira Gul
Muneeb Islam
Sakandar Khan
Abdul Bari
Tahira Tayyeb
Rafiq Ullah
Raheela Taj
Imad Khan


diet, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Channa marulius larvae meal, water quality


The Black solider fly Hermetia illucens, larvae meal (BSFLM) is a good source of protein alternative to fish meal (FM). The quality of fish fishmeal has been challenged economically in the aquaculture feed industry. The current research  was designed to identify the varying ingredient content levels of black soldier fly products (BSFP), recorded highest crude protein 42% and moisture 28.5% in mature fly, crude fiber 20.5%, and total Ash 14.5% in BSFL shell, crude fat 25.5%, in the pupa. The Black soldier fly larvae meal was tested 6-week experiments on Ctenopharyngodon idella 60 fingerlings (initial average length 1.58inch, 3.4gm weight and final body length and weight (4.38±0.10a, 15.00±0.00 a). Respectively, Channa marulius fingerlings initial average length is 6.52cm, weight 3.52gm and gain final body length and weight (8.50±0.18 a, 6.00±0.16 a). The Sixty fingerlings of each fish were divided into three groups: commercial and BSFLM feed. The feeds conversion ratio (FCR) of C. idella (2.564) and C. marulius (2.155) was calculated with the commercial base diet. The BSFLM (FCR) value of C. idella (1.4368) and C. marulius (2.106). The growth rate has a significant difference (P <0.05) and the strongest correlation recorded, temperature, ammonia, total dissolved solids, and water pH to affect the fish growth. No adverse effects were noted from the utilization of BSFLM, the formula was recommended to be used for   C. idella and C. marulius fish. We concluded from our study that the BSFLM supplementation shown promising biological effects and cost-effective alternative protein and energy sources for C. idella and C. marulius fish in term of their growth traits.

Abstract 91 | PDF Downloads 20


1. Bianchi M, Chopin F, Farme T, Franz N, Fuentevilla C, Garibaldi L, et al. the state of world fisheries and aquaculture. FAO. 2014; 1-230.
2. Guedes AC, Sousa-Pinto I, Malcata FX. Application of microalgae protein to aquafeed, in: Handbook of marine microalgae. 1st ed.; Academic Press, Portugal. 2015; 1:93-125.
3. Cashion T, Le Manach F, Zeller D, Pauly D. Most fish destined for fishmeal production are food‐grade fish. Fish Fish. 2017; 18(5): 837-844.
4. Turchini GM, Trushenski JT, Glencross BD. Thoughts for the future of aquaculture nutrition: realigning perspectives to reflect contemporary issues related to judicious use of marine resources in aquafeeds. N. Am. J. Aquac. 2019; 81(1):13-39.
5. Kobayashi M, Msangi S, Batka M, Vannuccini S, Dey MM, Anderson JL. the role and opportunity for aquaculture. Aquac. Econ. Manag. 2015; 19(3): 282-300.
6. Konar M, Qiu S, Tougher B, Vause J, Tlusty M, Fitzsimmons K, et al. Illustrating the hidden economic, social and ecological values of global forage fish resources. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2019; 151: 1-10.
7. Fisher H, Collins S, Hanson C, Mason B, Colombo S, Anderson D. Black soldier fly larvae meal as a protein source in low fish meal diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture. 2020; 521: 1-35.
8. Li Y, Kortner TM, Chikwati EM, Belghit I, Lock EJ, Krogdahl Å. Total replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal does not compromise the gut health of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture. 2020; 520:1-39.
9. Arru B, Furesi R, Gasco L, Madau FA, Pulina P. The introduction of insect meal into fish diet: The first economic analysis on European sea bass farming. Sustainability. 2019; 11(6): 1697.
10. Hua K, Cobcroft JM, Cole A, Condon K, Jerry DR, Mangott A, et al. The future of aquatic protein: implications for protein sources in aquaculture diets. One Earth. 2019; 1(3): 316-329.
11. Basto A, Matos E, Valente LM. Nutritional value of different insect larvae meals as protein sources for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles. Aquaculture. 2020; 521: 1-39.
12. Baiano A. Edible insects: An overview on nutritional characteristics, safety, farming, production technologies, regulatory framework, and socio-economic and ethical implications. Trends Food Sci. 2020; 100: 35-50.
13. Shumo M, Osuga IM, Khamis FM, Tanga CM, Fiaboe KK Subramanian S, et al. The nutritive value of black soldier fly larvae reared on common organic waste streams in Kenya. Sci. Rep. 2019; 9(1): 1-13.
14. Abdel-Tawwab M, Khalil RH, Metwally AA, Shakweer MS, Khallaf MA, Abdel-Latif, H.M. Effects of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) larvae meal on growth performance, organs-somatic indices, body composition, and hemato-biochemical variables of European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Aquaculture. 2020; 522: 1-35.
15. Council NR. Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp. The National Academies Press, Washington DC, 2011;1-8.
16. Diener S, Zurbrügg C, Tockner K. Conversion of organic material by black soldier fly larvae: establishing optimal feeding rates. Waste Manag. Res. 2009; 27(6): 603-610.
17. Kouřimská L, Adámková A. Nutritional and sensory quality of edible insects. NFS J. 2016; 4: 22-26.
18. Dumas A, Raggi T, Barkhouse J, Lewis E, Weltzien E. The oil fraction and partially defatted meal of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) affect differently growth performance, feed efficiency, nutrient deposition, blood glucose and lipid digestibility of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture. 2018; 492: 24-34.
19. Wang G, Peng K, Hu J, Yi C, Chen X, Wu H, Huang Y. Evaluation of defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) larvae meal as an alternative protein ingredient for juvenile Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus) diets. Aquaculture. 2019; 507: 144-154.
20. Yildirim-Aksoy M, Eljack R, Schrimsher C, Beck BH. Use of dietary frass from black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, in hybrid tilapia (Nile x Mozambique, Oreocromis niloticus x O. mozambique) diets improves growth and resistance to bacterial diseases. Aquac Rep.2020; 17: 1-9.
21. El Asely A, Amin A, Abd El-Naby AS, Samir F, El-Ashram A, Dawood MA. Ziziphus mauritiana supplementation of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) diet for improvement of immune response to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 2020; 46: 1561-1575.
22. Yaseen, Khan Q, Rehman HU, Naeem M, Ahmad MM. Artificial feed for rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) in district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Pakistan. J. Entomol. Zool. Stud. 2016; 4:155-158.
23. Coad BW. The Freshwater Fishes of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma and Sri Srilanka: A Handbook, Ist ed. JSTOR, 1983; 280-282.
24. Khan A, Ali Z, Shelly S, Ahmad Z, Mirza M. Aliens; a catastrophe for native fresh water fish diversity in Pakistan. J. Anim. Plant Sci . 2011; 21(2): 435-440.
25. Dawood MA, Amer AA, Elbialy ZI, Gouda AH. Effects of including triticale on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, and growth-related genes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquaculture. 2020; 528: 1-36.
26. Weththasinghe P, Hansen JØ, Nøkland D, Lagos L,Rawski M, Øverland M. Full-fat black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) meal and paste in extruded diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Effect on physical pellet quality, nutrient digestibility, nutrient utilization and growth performances. Aquaculture.2011; 530: 1-46.
27. Tippayadara N, Dawood MA, Krutmuang P, Hoseinifar SH, Doan HV, Paolucci M. Replacement of fish meal by Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal: Effects on growth, haematology, and skin mucus immunity of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Animals. 2021; 11(1): 193.
28. Devic E, Leschen W, Murray F, Little DC. Growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of advanced nursing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal. Aquac. Nutr. 2018; 24(1): 416-423.
29. Toriz-Roldan A, Ruiz-Vega J, García-Ulloa M, Hernández-Llamas A, Fonseca-Madrigal J, Rodríguez-González H. Assessment of Dietary Supplementation Levels of Black Soldier Fly, Hemertia illucens1, Pre-Pupae Meal for Juvenile Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Southwest. Entomol. 2019; 44(1): 251-259.
30. Renna M, Schiavone A, Gai F, Dabbou S, Lussiana C, Malfatto V, Prearo M, Capucchio MT, Biasato I, Biasibetti E. Evaluation of the suitability of a partially defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) larvae meal as ingredient for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) diets. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 2017; 8(1): 1-13.
31. Liland NS, Biancarosa I, Araujo P, Biemans D, Bruckner CG, Waagbø R, Torstensen BE, Lock E-J. Modulation of nutrient composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae by feeding seaweed-enriched media. PloS One. 2017; 12(8):1-23.
32. Oonincx DG, Van Broekhoven S, Van Huis A, van Loon JJ. Feed conversion, survival and development, and composition of four insect species on diets composed of food by-products. PloS One. 2015; 10(12): 1-20.
33. Makori AJ, Abuom PO, Kapiyo R, Anyona DN, Did GO. Effects of water physico-chemical parameters on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) growth in earthen ponds in Teso North Sub-County, Busia County. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 2017; 20(1): 1-10.
34. Tahoun A, Hammouda Y. Effect of replacement of soybean by DDGS combined with commercial phytase on nile tilapia.(Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings growth performance and feed utilization. Am.-Eurasian j. agric. environ. sci. 2009; 5(4): 473-479.
35. Yaseen, A Ullah, I Khan, M Begum, S Bibi, Umber, Namra, A Khan S Gul, R Taj. Induced-toxicity of pesticides on edible freshwater fishes in Pakistan: A review. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture.2024; 40(1): 195-212.
36. Azrag AG, Mohamed SA, Ndlela S, Ekesi S. Predicting the habitat suitability of the invasive white mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis; Newstead, 1906 (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) using bioclimatic variables. Pest Management Science.2022; 78(10):4114.
37. Imad Khan, Hafsa Zaneb, Saima Masood, Saima Ashraf, Hafiz F. Rehman, Sajid K. Tahir, Habib U. Rehman2, Adnan Khan, Raheela Taj, Sadeeq U. Rahman and Muqader Shah. Supplementation of Selenium Nanoparticles-Loaded Chitosan Improves Production Performance, Intestinal Morphology, and Gut Microflora in Broiler Chickens. The Journal of Poultry Science. 2022; 59(3): 273-283.

Most read articles by the same author(s)