Main Article Content

Dr Kulsoom Lashari
Dr Muhammad Ilyas
Dr Raz Muhammad Bazai
Dr Manisha Kumari
Sandya Bai


Schizophrenia, Folic acid, Methylcobalamin, Risperidone, Clinical Symptoms, BDNF Serum, Adjuvant Therapy, Mental Health, Integrative Treatment, Cognitive Markers.


Schizophrenia, characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and cognitive impairments, poses significant challenges for individuals and society. This study investigates the effects of adjuvant therapy with folic acid and methylcobalamin on clinical symptoms and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in schizophrenia patients receiving risperidone. A total of 46 subjects participated in 8-week experimental analysis, with the treatment group receiving adjuvant therapy alongside risperidone at Department of Psychiatry, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre Karachi. Positive and significant improvements in clinical symptoms (63.33%) and BDNF levels were observed in the treatment group compared to the control group. The study contributes valuable insights into the potential benefits of adjuvant therapy for schizophrenia treatment.

Abstract 74 | PDF Downloads 34


1. Bellack, A. S., Green, M. F., Cook, J. A., Fenton, W., Harvey, P. D., Heaton, R. K., Laughren, T., Leon, A. C., Mayo, D. J., & Patrick, D. L. (2007). Assessment of community functioning in people with schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses: a white paper based on an NIMH-sponsored workshop. Schizophrenia bulletin, 33(3), 805-822.
2. Chachar, A. S., & Mian, A. I. (2022). A Review of Intersection of Social Determinants and Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services: a case for Social Psychiatry in Pakistan. World Social Psychiatry, 4(2), 69-77.
3. Dewi, N., Syamsuddin, S., Liaury, K., Zainuddin, A. A., Rasyid, H., & Lisal, S. T. (2023). THE EFFECT OF ADJUVANT THERAPY OF FOLIC ACID AND METHYLCOBALAMINE ON HOMOCYSTEINE LEVELS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA PATIENTS. Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology, 30(18), 1466-1476.
4. Farcas, A., Hindmarch, C., & Iftene, F. (2023). BDNF gene Val66Met polymorphisms as a predictor for clinical presentation in schizophrenia–recent findings. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 14, 1234220.
5. Fond, G. B., Yon, D. K., Tran, B., Mallet, J., & Boyer, L. (2023). Poverty and inequality in real-world schizophrenia: a national study. Frontiers in Public Health, 11, 1182441.
6. Gritti, P. (2017). The bio-psycho-social model forty years later: a critical review. Journal of Psychosocial Systems, 1(1), 36-41.
7. Hutto, B. R. (1997). Folate and cobalamin in psychiatric illness. Comprehensive psychiatry, 38(6), 305-314.
8. Kowiański, P., Lietzau, G., Czuba, E., Waśkow, M., Steliga, A., & Moryś, J. (2018). BDNF: a key factor with multipotent impact on brain signaling and synaptic plasticity. Cellular and molecular neurobiology, 38, 579-593.
9. Li, S., Zhao, S., Guo, Y., Yang, Y., Huang, J., Wang, J., Lu, S., Wang, B., Chai, C., & Xu, Z. (2022). Clinical efficacy and potential mechanisms of acupoint stimulation combined with chemotherapy in combating cancer: A review and prospects. Frontiers in Oncology, 12, 1613.
10. Lima Giacobbo, B., Doorduin, J., Klein, H. C., Dierckx, R. A., Bromberg, E., & de Vries, E. F. (2019). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain disorders: focus on neuroinflammation. Molecular neurobiology, 56, 3295-3312.
11. Morozova, A., Zorkina, Y., Abramova, O., Pavlova, O., Pavlov, K., Soloveva, K., Volkova, M., Alekseeva, P., Andryshchenko, A., & Kostyuk, G. (2022). Neurobiological highlights of cognitive impairment in psychiatric disorders. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(3), 1217.
12. Orsolini, L., Pompili, S., & Volpe, U. (2022). Schizophrenia: a narrative review of etiopathogenetic, diagnostic and treatment aspects. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 11(17), 5040.
13. Prousky, J. E. (2007). The orthomolecular treatment of schizophrenia: a primer for clinicians. Townsend Letter: The Examiner of Alternative Medicine(283), 86-101.
14. Shkundin, A., & Halaris, A. (2023). Associations of BDNF/BDNF-AS SNPs with depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Journal of Personalized Medicine, 13(9), 1395.
15. Singh, S. P., & Singh, V. (2011). Meta-analysis of the efficacy of adjunctive NMDA receptor modulators in chronic schizophrenia. CNS drugs, 25, 859-885.
16. Solmi, M., Seitidis, G., Mavridis, D., Correll, C. U., Dragioti, E., Guimond, S., Tuominen, L., Dargél, A., Carvalho, A. F., & Fornaro, M. (2023). Incidence, prevalence, and global burden of schizophrenia-data, with critical appraisal, from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019. Molecular psychiatry, 1-9.
17. Sonny, L. T., Aulya, L. F., Burhanuddin, B., Erlyn, L., Jumraini, T., & Saidah, S. (2023). The THE EFFECT OF DONEPEZIL ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION AND PLASMA BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR (BDNF) LEVELS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA. Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology, 30(16), 397-407.
18. Valiente, C., Espinosa, R., Trucharte, A., Nieto, J., & Martinez-Prado, L. (2019). The challenge of well-being and quality of life: A meta-analysis of psychological interventions in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia research, 208, 16-24.

Most read articles by the same author(s)