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Dr Muhammad Usman Aslam
Dr Kamal Khan Mandokhail
Dr Syed Sofyan Muhammad
Dr Manisha Kumari
Dr Muhammad Usman Siddiqi
Dr Maham Moosani


Addiction, Tobacco, Smoking, Nicotine, Dependence, Depression


Objective: To ascertain the frequency and patterns of nicotine use habits among individuals diagnosed with depression.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Psychiatry department of Jinnah Post-Graduation Medical Centre Karachi, Pakistan from October 2023 to March 2024. The hospital’s ethical board approval was obtained. The study aimed to assess nicotine use and dependence among 130 depression-diagnosed patients. Data collection utilized semi-structured forms and standardized tools, including the WHO STEPS tool and the simple and modified Fagerstrom Test. IBM-SPSS version 23.0 was used to compute and analyze the data.

Results: The study included 130 participants with Major Depressive Disorder. 61.5% reported tobacco use, with 57.5% smoking only, 15% using nicotine vapes, 18.75% using nicotine douches, and 8.75% using both. Tobacco use was higher among men. 60.8% of tobacco smokers were heavily addicted, along with 83.33% of nicotine vapes users and 85.71% of nicotine douches users. Only 13.75% expressed a strong intention to quit, with a median Quit Smoking Score of 4, suggesting contemplation without concrete plans.

Conclusion: This study underlines the significant occurrence of nicotine use and dependence among individuals with depressive illnesses. Utilizing standardized screening tools in routine clinical practice can aid in timely identification and management of nicotine-use disorder. Integrating these tools into psychiatric patient diagnosis can enhance overall care and outcomes, particularly in countries like Pakistan.

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