Main Article Content

Abhishek Pandey
Bhumika Bhatt
Alok Kumar Arya
Vaibhav Sharma


Epidemiological, Asphyxial deaths, Uttar Pradesh


Background: Violent asphyxial deaths represent a significant subset of fatalities within forensic medicine, posing intricate challenges for accurate diagnosis and classification. By quantifying the prevalence of different modes of asphyxia, including strangulation, suffocation, and positional asphyxia, this study seeks to delineate the various mechanisms and contexts leading to fatal outcomes.

Methods: Study was conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, King George’s Medical University, Uttar Pradesh. It was an analytical study where all the cases of asphyxia deaths and suspected asphyxia deaths with associated other injuries of any age and sex were included. Decomposed bodies were excluded from this study.

Results: Total number of autopsies done during the study period were 4369 however incidence of violent asphyxia deaths was reported to be 6.11% (267 deaths). Hanging was the most commonly reported violent asphyxia death. A male preponderance can be seen with 148 cases from a total of 267 deaths. Visceral congestion and cyanosis are the most commonly reported findings in 100% and 83.9% of cases respectively.

Conclusion: Concerted efforts are needed to implement the recommendations outlined in this study, including strengthening forensic investigation protocols, enhancing public awareness campaigns, promoting collaboration between health and law enforcement agencies, and providing support services for survivors and bereaved families. By addressing the recommendations we can work towards creating a safer and more resilient community where every individual's right to life and dignity is upheld.

Abstract 62 | PDF Downloads 24


1. Chaurasia N, Pandey SK and Mishra A. An Epidemiological Study of Violent Asphyxial Death in Varanasi Region (India) a Killing Tool. J Forensic Res 2012;3(10):174.
2. Franklin CA: Modi's text book of Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology, 21st edition, N.M. Tripathi Private Limited Bombay. 1988;188-220.
3. Amandeep singh, Dildar Singh. Comparative study of hanging and strangulations cases in northeast and nothwestregions of Punjab.Journal of Punjab Academy of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology. 2009; 9(1): 6-8
4. Gargi J, Gorea RK, Chanana A Mann G. Violent asphyxial deaths – A six years study. Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Med 1992; 171-176
5. Prajapati P, Sheikh M I, Brahmbhatt J, Choksi C. A study of violent asphyxia death in Surat, Gujrat. Indian Journal of Fornsic Medicine & Toxicology. 201; 5(1): 66-70
6. Chaurasia N, Pandey SK. A Epidemiological Study of Violent Asphyxia Death in Varanasi Region (India) a Killing Tool. J Forensic Res 3: 174doi:10.4172/2157-7154.1000174
7. Srinivasa Reddy P, Rajendra Kumar R, Rudramurthy. Asphyxial deaths at district hospital, Tumkur: A retrospective study.J Indian Acad Forensic Med. 2012; 34(2): 146-147.
8. Roger W Byard, Amy E Austin, Corinna Ven Den Heuvel. Characteristics of asphyxia deaths in adolescence. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 2011; 18: 107-109
9. Austin A, Ven Den Heuvel C, Byard RW. Cluster hanging suicides in the young in South Australia J Forensic Sci 2011: 56(6) : 1528-30.
10. Tirmizi S Z A, Mirza F H, Paryar H A. Medico-legal investigation of Violent Asphyxial Deaths- An Autopsy Based Study. J Dow Uni Health Sci 2012; 6(3): 86-90
11. Luke J L, Reddy D T, Eisele J W Bonnell H J. Correlation of circumstances with pathological findings in asphyxia deaths by hanging: A Prospective study of 61 cases from Seattle, WA. J Forensic Science. 1985; 30(4): 1140-7.
12. Simonsen J. Pathoanatomic findings in neck structures in asphyxiation due to hanging: A survey of 80 cases. Forensic Sci. Int. 1988; 38:83-91
13. Patel Ankur P, Bhoot Rajesh R, Patel- Dhaval J, Patel Khushbu A. Study of Violent Asphyxial Death. International journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine. 2013; 3(2): 84-57
14. Vijaynath V, Anitha MR, Rajan K. A study of autopsy profile in cases of hanging. Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. 2009; 26(1):32-34
15. Naik S K , Patil D Y. Fractures of Hyoid bones in cases of asphyxial deaths resulting from constricting force round neck. JIAFM 2005; 27(3): 149-153
16. Momonchand A, Devi TM, Fimate L. Violent asphyxial deaths in Imphal. Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 1998;15(1):60-4
17. Singh Gambhir O. A study of violent mechanical asphyxial deaths in homicide; Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. 2008;25(2):34-35.
18. Mukherjee J.B."Forensic medicine and Toxicology Volume-l Second Edition 1994 Arnold Associates New, Bombay, Bangalore, Calcutta (258"474).
19. Gurudatt KS, Kumar SA, Gouda HS. Analysis of fatal cases of mechanical asphyxia at Belgaum, Karnataka 2011;28(2):51-53.