INSIGHTS INTO ENDOSCOPIC PATTERNS IN ACUTE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING CASES AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

Main Article Content

Muhammad Ayaz
Muhammad Daud Khalil
Salman Khan
Gul Ghutai
Hafsa Parveen
Sami Ullah

Keywords

Gastrointestinal, Bleeding, Endoscopy, Pakistan

Abstract

Background: Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) continues to be a major global health emergency that affects millions of people each year, placing a heavy strain on healthcare systems and presenting a serious risk to patient safety.


Objective: This study's main goal was to thoroughly evaluate the endoscopic results in Pakistani patients who were presenting with AUGIB.


Methodology: The research was conducted from 01 June 2023 to 30 November 2023 at the Department of Gastroenterology, MTI MMC Mardan, Pakistan, using a retrospective observational approach. Upper Gastrointestinal endoscopy (OGD) was the main diagnostic method used in patient evaluations, which also included comprehensive physical exams, blood testing, viral hepatitis serology, and abdominal ultrasounds. OGD results were methodically recorded. Age, gender, hepatitis status, and endoscopic results were all included in the data analysis, which was done using SPSS.


Results: In our investigation of 162 patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding (UGIB), endoscopic results showed differing frequencies of infection: 59.26% (n=96) of patients had Hepatitis C Virus and 25.93% (n= 42) had Hepatitis B Virus, 89.51% (n=145) had Oesophageal Varices, and 14.81% (n=24) had Peptic Ulcer Disease. Oesophageal varices showed significant gender-based disparities, with 39 female patients (26.90%) and 106 male patients (73.10%) (p-value=0.002). There were significant differences (p-value=0.004) in the gastric variations between 26 male patients (54.17%) and 22 female patients (45.83%).


Conclusion: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) emerges as the leading cause of AUGIB in Pakistan, and esophageal varices dominate endoscopic findings in 89.51% of cases.

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