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Jamil Bhatti
Ayesha Akhtar
Syed Haris Mustafa Zaidi
Sidra Khan
Noshirwan P. Gazder
Irshad Batool
Uzma Solangi
Salman Khan


Pneumococci, pneumonia, acute bacterial meningitis, penicillin


Background: Invasive pneumococcal disease is a significant contributor to both morbidity and mortality on a global scale. The occurrence of bacteremia in cases of pneumococcal pneumonia is an additional determinant of a poorer prognosis. However, it is essential to note that the most severe form of invasive pneumococcal infection is mainly associated with specific serotypes. The implementation of pneumococcal vaccination as a preventive measure has demonstrated a significant reduction in the occurrence of invasive pneumococcal illness among both vaccinated children and the adult population who have not received the vaccine.

Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the clinical characteristics of pneumococcal infections in the era of immunization.

Methods: This retrospective cohort was conducted at Dr Ziauddin Hospital from January 2018 to December 2021. 132 patients who tested positive for S-pneumo in a blood culture meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the study.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 62 years. Penicillin resistance was found in more than half of the patients. Besides penicillin, resistance was very high for ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole and tetracyclines. Mortality was found to be higher in elderly and dementia patients. The most common source of infection was meningitis, followed by respiratory tract infection. Penicillin use was associated with increased mortality. The need for ICU admission and pleural effusion were independent risk factors for mortality.

Conclusion; Resistance to penicillin and other antibiotics is rising. Common source of infection in this cohort was meningitis. Intensive care unit admission, low platelet count and pleural effusion are associated with increased mortality.

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