INVESTIGATING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BLOOD GROUPS, D-DIMER, AND NEUTROPHIL TO LYMPHOCYTE RATIO IN RELATION TO DISEASE SEVERITY AND OUTCOME: RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY ON COVID-19 PATIENTS

Main Article Content

Sohail khan Raja
Mohammad Ali Arshad Abbasi
Rubina Rafique Shiekh
Tashbih E Batool
Khawaja Faizan Ejaz
Muhammad Ishraf ul Islam
Amna Akbar
Maham Tariq
Sabahat Tasneem
Sarosh Khan Jadoon

Keywords

COVID-19, D-dimer, NLR, ABO blood group system

Abstract

Introduction: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and tuberculosis are well known fatal disorders. Corona-virus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) caused worldwide pandemic and it affected lungs and caused deaths more than other causes combined in one year. Research has been focused on different aspects of COVID-19 since it emerged. Blood groups and inflammatory markers are being investigated. The thromboembolism marker D-dimer and other coagulation markers are intensively being studied.


Methodology: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in Azad Jammu Kashmir, Pakistan to explore the relationship between blood groups and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and D-dimers in relation to disease severity and outcomes.


Results: The blood groups A and B+ve are more affected than other blood groups (58%) and NLR and D-dimer predict disease severity (p<-0.05). D-dimer is associated with blood groups, but NLR is not.


Conclusion: The present study gave good insight into role of blood groups, NLR and D-Dimer values in COVID-19 disease severity and outcomes. We recommend that further studies should be done, and more inflammatory markers must be explored as the present study represents only one area of our country.

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