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Saqib Tufail
Sadia Chaman
Gulbeena Saleem
Shaista Qamar
Rabia saeed
Fatima Usman
Alina Tariq
Nabeel Ahmad
Muhammad Tayyab Cheema
Ahmed Mustafa Nadeem


GC-MS FAMES, Amino acid, Reproductive hormones, Citrus reticulata


This study investigates the phytochemistry of lyophilized juice of Citrus reticulata fruit and
evaluates its impact on the reproductive hormones of adult female rats. Phytoconstituents were
identified by using phytochemical analysis, and GC-MS. The effect of lyophilized fruit juice on the
oestrus cycle and reproductive hormones was assessed by using an in vivo experimental rat model.
Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of amino acids, and fatty acids in the lyophilized
fruit juice. The in vivo study demonstrated the estrogen antagonist effects of the lyophilized fruit
juice in treated animals. This effect was attributed to the direct impact of the lyophilized fruit juice
on female reproductive organs, leading to the suppression of follicular growth in the ovary or
disruption of the hormonal balance in the hypothalamic-hypophysial ovarian and uterine axis. These
findings highlighted the diverse array of phytochemical constituents present in the lyophilized juice
of Citrus reticulata fruit and their potential effects on the reproductive hormones.

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