Main Article Content

Saba Badar
Gulbeena Saleem
Asim Aslam
Kamran Ashraf


Chicken, Ceaca, Coccidiosis, Essential oil, Intestine, T-cell immunity


Chickens frequently contract the parasite disease coccidiosis, which is expensive for the industry. This study shows that immune modulatory substances like active constituents in Rosemary essential oil (REO) have a unique immune-potentiating effect on broiler chickens’ immunity challenged with Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella. A total of 700 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-Male) were randomly distributed into six treatment groups (Positive control Eimeria maxima, Positive control Eimeria tenella, E. maxima challenged and treated with sulpha drug, E. tenella challenged and treated with sulpha drug and REO fed E. maxima challenged, REO fed E. tenella challenged) and one negative control group. Two groups fed with diet supplemented with 100 ppm of rosemary essential oil. Coccidiosis free status was determined twice at 14 days of age. On day 14 of age, unchallenged birds were inoculated by gavage with sporulated oocysts of genus Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima. Intestinal tissue samples from two birds per sampling day, from each group were collected on day of challenge, 5th, 7th and 9th day post infection (dpi). DNA extraction and Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (Q-PCR) analysis was conducted for gene expression of cytokines after Eimeria challenge in the challenged and control groups. The REO groups exhibited increased gene expression of interferon (IFN), interleukin (IL), Tumor Growth Factor (TGF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The REO modulated the inflammatory response against Eimeria spp. In the absence of the parasite, there was no stimulation of genes involved in the inflammatory response, demonstrating that the REO is an effective tool in specifically modulating the immune system of birds afflicted with coccidiosis.

Abstract 146 | PDF Downloads 56


1. Bremner A, Kim S, Morris KM, Nolan MJ, Borowska D, Wu Z, Tomley F, Blake DP, Hawken R, Kaiser P and Vervelde L. 2021. Kinetics of the Cellular and Transcriptomic Response to Eimeriamaxima in Relatively Resistant and Susceptible Chicken Lines. Front. Immunol. 12:653085. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.653085
2. Chengli Wang, Hailiang Yu, Xiaohui Wang, Wenbin Zou, Changhao Mi, Tingyan Hu, Guojun Dai. 2020. Effect of IL-8, IL-2 and IL-15 Gene Expression in Different Tissues of Jinghai Yellow Chicken Infected by Eimeria Tenella Journal of Physics: Conference Series. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1629/1/012022 1.
3. Chen, J., Xu, Y., Han, Q., Yao, Y., Xing, H., and Teng, X. 2019. Immunosuppression, oxidative stress, and glycometabolism disorder caused by cadmium in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Application of transcriptome analysis in risk assessment of environmental contaminant cadmium. J. Hazard. Mater. 366, 386–394. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.12.014
4. Dalloul, R.A. and Lillehoj, H., 2004. Poultry coccidiosis: Recent developments in control measures and vaccine development. Expert review of Vaccines. 5(1): 143-163.
5. Elazab, M. A., Khalifah, A. M., Elokil, A. A., Elkomy, A. E., Rabie, M. M., Mansour, A. T., et al. 2022. Effect of dietary rosemary and ginger essential oils on the growth performance, feed utilization, meat nutritive value, blood biochemicals, and redox status of growing NZW rabbits. Animals 12:375. doi: 10.3390/ani12030375
6. Habtamu, Y., and Gebre, T., 2019. Poultry Coccidiosis and its Economic Impact: Review Article. Br. Poult. Sci. 8 (3): 76-88. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.bjps.2019.76.88.
7. Iwona Skomorucha, Ewa Sosnówka-Czajka. 2021. The effect of adding herbal extracts to drinking water on body temperature, level of thyroid hormones and H:L ratio in the blood of broiler chickens exposed to elevated ambient temperature. Ann. Anim. Sci., 21(4) 1511–1522 DOI: 10.2478/aoas-2021-0014.
8. Jonatas Rafael de Oliveira, Samira Esteves Afonso Camargo and Luciane Dias de Oliveira. 2019. Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) as therapeutic and prophylactic agent. J. Biomed. Sci. 26:5.
9. Juárez-Estrada MA, Gayosso-Vázquez A, Tellez-Isaias G, Alonso-Morales RA. 2021. Protective Immunity Induced by an Eimeria tenella Whole Sporozoite Vaccine Elicits Specific B-Cell Antigens. Animals (Basel). 11(5):1344. doi: 10.3390/ani11051344. PMID: 34065041; PMCID: PMC8151427.
10. Ruff, J.; Tellez, G., Jr.; Forga, A.J.; Señas-Cuesta, R.; Vuong, C.N.; Greene, E.S.; Hernandez-Velasco, X.; Uribe, Á.J.; Martínez, B.C.; Angel-Isaza, J.A.; et al., 2021. Evaluation of Three Formulations of Essential Oils in Broiler Chickens under Cyclic Heat Stress. Animals. 11, 1084.
11. Ruojun Bai, Chunlin Yuan, Tongzhuang Wang, Li Liu, Jinxiu Li, Ying Lai, Haifei Li, Zhiwei Chen, Chunli Li, Dazhi Ke, Johji Yamahara, Ling Yao, Jian-Wei Wang. 2020. Apple pomace and rosemary extract ameliorates hepatic steatosis in fructose-fed rats: Association with enhancing fatty acid oxidation and suppressing inflammation. 1975-1986
12. Lee, Y.; Lu, M.; Lillehoj, H.S. 2022. Coccidiosis: Recent Progress in Host Immunity and Alternatives to Antibiotic Strategies. Vaccines. 10, 215. vaccines10020215
13. Liu Y, Li C, Huang X, Zhang X, Deng P, Jiang G and Dai Q. 2022. Dietary rosemary extract modulated gut microbiota and influenced the growth, meat quality, serum biochemistry, antioxidant, and immune capacities of broilers. Front. Microbiol. 13:1024682. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.1024682.
14. Liu, Y., Yu, M., Cui, J., Du, Y., Teng, X., and Zhang, Z. 2021. Heat shock proteins took part in oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory injury via NF-kB pathway in excess manganese-treated chicken livers. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 226:112833. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112833
15. Lillehoj H S, Min W, Kang D C, et al. 2001. Molecular, cellular, and functional characterization of chicken cytokines homologous to mammalian IL-15 and IL-2. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 82(3):229-244.
16. Mehtap Güney, Serhat Karaca, Sibel Erdogan, Askin Kor, Cagri Kale, Sukru Onalan, Murat Demirel & Nuriye Tugba Bingol. 2021. Effects of dietary supplementation with rosemary oil on methanogenic bacteria density, blood and rumen parameters and meat quality of fattening lambs, Italian Journal of Animal Science, 20:1, 794-805, DOI: 10.1080/1828051X.2021.1906165
17. Mici´c, D., Ðurovi´c, S. Riabov, P., Tomi´c, A., Šovljanski, O., Filip, S., Tosti, T., Dojˇcinovi´c, B., Božovi´c, R., Jovanovi´c, D., et al. 2021. Rosemary Essential Oils as a Promising Source of Bioactive Compounds: Chemical Composition, Thermal Properties, Biological Activity, and Gastronomical Perspectives. Foods. 10, 2734. 10112734.
18. Jessy Moore, Michael Yousef and Evangelia Tsiani. 2016. Anticancer Effects of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Extract and Rosemary Extract Polyphenols. Nutrients. 8, 731; doi:10.3390/nu8110731.
19. Khaled M. M. Saleh and Mohammad. 2019. Effect of Acute Heat Stress on the mRNA Levels of
20. Cytokines in Broiler Chickens Subjected to Embryonic Thermal Manipulation. Animals, 9, 499; doi:10.3390/ani9080499.
21. Moraes, P.O., Andretta, I., Cardinal, K.M., Ceron, M., Vilella, L., Borille, R., Frazzon, A.P., Frazzon, J., Santin, E., and Ribeiro, A.M.L., 2019. Effect of functional oils on the immune response of broilers challenged with Eimeria spp. Animal. 13-10. 2190-2198.
22. Saif, Y.M., 2003. Disease of poultry, 11 ed.
23. Shivaramaiah, C., Barta, J.R., Hernandez-Velasco, X., Téllez, G., Hargis, B.M., 2014. Coccidiosis: recent advancements in the immunobiology of Eimeria species, preventive measures, and the importance of vaccination as a control tool against these Apicomplexan parasites. Vet Med (Auckl). 5:23-34. doi: 10.2147/VMRR.S57839. PMID: 32670843; PMCID: PMC7337151.
24. Stojiljkovic J, Trajchev M, Nakov D, et al. 2018. Antibacterial activities of rosemary essential oils and their components against pathogenic bacteria. Adv Cytol Pathol. 3(4):93-96. DOI: 10.15406/acp.2018.03.00060.
25. Tovar Acero C, Ramı´rez-Montoya J, Velasco MC, Avile´s-Vergara PA, Ricardo-Caldera D,
26. Duran-Frigola M, et al. 2022. IL-4, IL-10, CCL2 and TGF-β as potential biomarkers for severity in Plasmodium vivax malaria. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 16(9): e0010798. pntd.0010798
27. Xu Y., Lai X., Li Z., Zhang X., Luo Q. 2018. Effect of chronic heat stress on some physiological and immunological parameters in different breed of broilers. Poultry Sci., 97: 4073–4082.
28. Zhang, J., Cui, J., Wang, Y., Lin, X., Teng, X., and Tang, Y. 2022. Complex molecular mechanism of ammonia-induced apoptosis in chicken peripheral blood lymphocytes: MiR-27b-3p, heat shock proteins, immunosuppression, death receptor pathway, and mitochondrial pathway. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 246:113471. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113471.