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Mohammad Shoiab Khan
Manzoor Iqbal Khattak
Nida Kazmi
Adnan Afridi
Munnaza Saeed
Hamid Ullah


Material Science, Nanotechnology, Environmental Pollution, Drinking water



The aim of this research was to investigate the waters of Balochistan dams as a reference for extracting various heavy metal ions. Among the water sources for these dams are shallow groundwater (SG), runoff from a seasonal floodplain rich in lithological rocks, including NaCl, as well as the discharge of effluents and residential wastes (inorganic contaminants).  ZnO particles were synthesized using solid precipitation techniques. The average dimensions of the rod-shaped ZnO particles were 497.34 ± 15.55 nm in length and 75.78 ± 10.39 nm in diameter. These particles exhibited efficient extraction, eliminating over 85% of heavy metal ions such as Cu(II), Ag(I), and Pb(II) after an hour of UV exposure. However, for ions like Cr(VI), Mn(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II), the ectraction rate was less than 15%. The elimination procedures involved the adsorption of metals through oxidation and reduction.  Evaporation significantly influenced the surface groundwater in the saline floodplain, which is periodically transported to the Balochistan dams, as revealed by analyses of water type evolution and surface hydrology. The research region in the present study is typically mildly acidic or mildly alkaline, with the majority of samples aligning with guidelines set by the World Health Organization. However, prolonged usage of this water, given its high salinity, may have a negative effect on soil and grape yield.

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