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Zartash Sial
Anam Raheel
Muqaddas Jamshaid
Sundus Noor
Muhammad Waqar Aslam
Zainab Nawaz
Muhammad Usman


Congenital Heart Diseases, Infants, Gestational Diabetes, Pregnancy


Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has already been recognized as an important risk factor for congenital heart disease (CHD). However, local studies have reported variable frequency for CHD among GDM. Learning the burden of diseases will be crucial in reducing preventable neonatal mortality by devising screening strategies for neonates born to diabetic mothers.   

Objective: To assess the frequency of congenital heart diseases (CHD) in infants of diabetic mothers.

 Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics at Fatima Memorial Hospital, Lahore, from January to December 2021. A total of 100 mothers who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. In our study, the exposure of interest was mothers diagnosed with Gestational diabetes mellitus by a qualified physician, and the outcome of the interest was the Pattern of Congenital Heart Diseases in Infants, such as Ventricular Septal Defect, Patent Ductus Arteriosus, Atrial Septal Defect, etc. The neonates were enrolled using non-probability Consecutive sampling. Neonates were evaluated using a stethoscope to detect heart murmurs, and those with murmurs underwent echocardiography for CHD confirmation. Data were recorded on a standard questionnaire adopted from a previous study. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 25.

 Results: Congenital heart disease was diagnosed in 71% of neonates. The most frequent types were Ventricular Septal Defect (32.39%), Patent Ductus Arteriosus (35.21%), and Atrial Septal Defect (19.72%). The frequency of CHD was higher among older mothers and those with gestational ages of 37-40 weeks. Male infants had a higher frequency of CHD (Male: 62%, Female: 38%, p-value=0.344). Neonates with weights <2.75 kg also had a higher frequency of CHD. These findings are consistent with national and international studies.

 Conclusion: A high frequency of congenital heart disease was observed in infants of diabetic mothers. Effective screening for GDM mothers is crucial for early CHD diagnosis through echocardiography, which may help us with proper counseling and early intervention.

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