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Maida Bilal
Naila Amjad
Aasma Iqbal
Umer Ali
Muhammad Usman
Anisa Iftikhar
Asad Munir


Deltamethrin, Gallus gallus domesticus, pyrethroid, toxicological impact hematological responses, oxidative stress biomarkers, sustainable pest management


Deltamethrin, a type-II pyrethroid and synthetic-cyno pyrethroid, is extensively employed as an insecticide in agricultural and pest management practices. This study aims to investigate the toxicological impact of deltamethrin exposure on Gallus gallus domesticus, focusing on hematological, biochemical, histopathological, and growth parameters. Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens) were divided into four groups, including a control group and three experimental groups exposed to increasing doses of deltamethrin. Hematological parameters, biochemical markers, oxidative stress biomarkers, and histopathological changes in the liver were assessed. The study also examined the influence of deltamethrin on growth parameters, including weight and length. The study revealed significant adverse effects of deltamethrin exposure on various parameters in Gallus gallus domesticus, including hematological, biochemical, histopathological, and growth parameters. Dose-dependent reductions in hemoglobin, red blood cells, and hematocrit, coupled with increased oxidative stress biomarkers and liver enzyme levels, indicated potential toxicity. Histopathological examinations underscored substantial liver damage. Moreover, a dose-dependent impact on growth parameters highlighted significant weight and length reduction in exposed chickens. These findings emphasize the need for use of deltamethrin in poultry farming and the development of sustainable pest management practices to safeguard both poultry health and human consumers.

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