MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERNS AGAINST E. COLI, P. AERUGINOSA, ENTEROBACTER SPP. AND KLEBSIELLA SPP. IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS. FIRST EVER REPORTED STRAINS IN DIVISION SAHIWAL

Main Article Content

Yasir Nawaz
Fouzia Tanvir
Javaria Zafar
Namra Ashiq
Mohsin Bilal
Saira
Saira Arshad
Saba Munir
Ibrar Hussain

Keywords

Antibiotics, humans, animals, bacteria, resistance

Abstract

Background: Antimicrobial medications have been crucial in both animals and humans to reduce infections and death rate. Antibiotic resistance is found in all bacteria including E. coli, P.  aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. To find out the effective medication is necessary to cure the disease resulted from bacteria. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to isolate, test antibiotic resistance patterns against bacteria and to find novel strains from division. Methodology: This study was conducted in accordance to the declarations of Helsinki. About 120 stool samples from humans and 100 fecal samples were collected from chicken and goat. Bacteria were isolated in laboratory. Biochemical tests were employed to identify bacteria. To test antibiotic susceptibility five antibiotics on humans and thirteen antibiotics on chicken and goat were used against bacteria. DNA was extracted and checks quantity by agarose gel electrophoresis. The 16srRNA primers were used for PCR analysis. Results: In humans, Ofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin were sensitive, ceftriaxone and ampicillin shows no sensitivity against bacteria. Cefixime shows resistance to both bacteria. In chicken and goat streptomycin was sensitive, while all others were not sensitive against bacteria. Azithromycin. Nalidixic acid, Pencillin and Ofloxacin were completely resistant. Conclusion: It is concluded that E. Coli, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. in humans and animals are first reported in division. These could be risk for human health because of the chance of transmission of these bacteria to people by food chain or direct interaction to humans. 

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