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Amina Javed
Sadia Mumtaz
Madiha Khalid
Aisha Siddique
Tasleem Akhtar
Abdul Rauf


Antimicrobial Resistance, Multi drug Resistance, Escherichia coli, Poultry samples, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious threat to animal and human health. Globally, a rapid and alarming increase in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been reported in past few years. Escherichia coli is one of the major bacterial enteropathogen of public health concern that causes food borne diseases. As a frequent commensal and zoonotic bacterium, E. coli can be a potential candidate as a pathogenic source for dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. Present study was designed to evaluate the magnitude of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from poultry samples collected from Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. For this purpose, 120 samples (liver, spleen, intestines and fecal wastes) were collected from different retailer’s shops of chicken meat in district Bagh during the month of December, 2022 to March, 2023 to evaluate the frequency of E. coli in samples. All the collected samples were processed using established microbiological techniques and isolated E. coli were subjected to antimicrobial profiling by disc diffusion method against 15 different antibiotics. Out of 120 collected samples, 65 (54.17%) samples were found to be positive for E.coli. The prevalence of E.coli in different poultry samples ranged from 43.33 to 70%. Antibiogram results showed significant difference in antibiotic resistance pattern against selected antibiotics (p<0.05) and the highest resistance was observed against nalidixic acid (100%) followed by erythromycin, tetracycline, amoxycilin (95.38%), penicillin G (93.84%) and kanamycin (90.77%). Lower level of resistance was observed against colistin-sulphate (16.92%) and cefipeme (9.23%). Whereas, all isolates were found to be susceptible to Cefoxitin. However, none of E.coli isolate was found susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. Furthermore, all the isolated E.coli were found to be multidrug resistant and showed simultaneous resistant against four or more classes of tested antimicrobials. Maximum number of E.coli isolates (n=28, 43.08%) showed resistance against seven different classes of antimicrobial agents. The current study delineated the incidence of multi drug resistant (MDR) E.coli in poultry samples which endorsed the requirement of proper attention towards regular monitoring and surveillance of exploitation of antimicrobials as chemotherapeutic agents in human and veterinary health care sector in Pakistan.

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