Main Article Content

Syed Abdul Hadi
Jameel Ahmed Gandahi
Muhammad Ghiasuddin Shah
Saima Masood
Noor Samad Gandahi
Ghulam Murtaza Lochi
Muhammad Hayat
Muhammad Farooque Hassan
Tanzeela Farooq
Muhammad Nawaz
Abdul Asim Farooq
Muhammad Usman Saleem
Muhammad Arshad Javid


Heat stress, Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles, Chitosan oligosaccharide, Growth performance, Goblet cells


This study aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) on heat-stressed broiler chickens. D-old 336 birds were divided into seven groups, comprising 6 replicates with eight birds per replicate. G-Group (NC) Negative Control, fed basal diet only; (PC) HS + Positive Control; (HZ) HS + Zinc oxide 60 mg/kg (ZnO); (HZN) HS + ZnO-NPs 60 mg/kg; (HC) HS + COS 200 mg/kg; (HZC) HS + ZnO 60 mg/kg + COS 200 mg/kg;  (HZNC) HS + ZnO-NPs 60 mg/kg + COS 200 mg/kg. An interaction effect (p≤0.05) was observed between ZnO-NPs and COS on parameters such as feed conversion ratio (FCR), body weight gain (BWG), feed consumption, and the relative weight of immune and visceral organs. G-HZNC showed excellent improvements (p≤0.05) in BWG, FCR, and feed conversion ratio. Similarly, the G-HZNC displayed significant improvement (p≤0.05) in the weights of the small intestine, bursa, and cecal tonsil. Furthermore, G-HZNC significantly (p≤0.05) enhanced the duodenum villus structure and goblet cell count (p≤0.05) compared to G-PC. Among the groups, the best results were found in G-HZNC, where the thickness of the lamina propria, muscularis mucosa, and muscularis externa significantly increased (p≤0.05). The antioxidant profile, including enzymes, superoxide dismutase SOD significantly increased (p≤0.05) in G-HZNC compared to G-PC, while glutathione peroxidase GPx and malondialdehyde MDA concentration significantly reduced (p≤0.05) in all dietary groups compared to G-PC. This study concluded that 60 mg/kg of ZnO-NPs with 200 mg/kg of COS mitigated the detrimental impacts of heat stress. This combination enhanced growth performance, duodenal histomorphometry, increased antioxidant enzymatic activity, and serum mineral profile in broiler chickens.

Abstract 49 | PDF Downloads 22


1. Ahmadi, F., Ebrahimnezhad, Y., Sis, N.M. and Ghiasi, J., 2013. The effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on performance, digestive organs and serum lipid concentrations in broiler chickens during starter period. Int J Biosci, 3(7): 23-29.
2. Ali, S. et al., 2017. Supplementation of zinc oxide nanoparticles has beneficial effects on intestinal morphology in broiler chicken. Pak Vet J, 37(3): 335-339.
3. Ashraf, S. et al., 2013. Effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotics and probiotics on intestinal microarchitecture in broilers reared under cyclic heat stress. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. (Berl.) , 97: 68-73.
4. Chand, N., Muhammad, S., Khan, R.U., Alhidary, I.A. and Rehman, Z.u., 2016. Ameliorative effect of synthetic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on performance traits, antioxidant status and immune response in broiler exposed to cyclic heat stress. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23: 23930-23935.
5. Cornick, S., Tawiah, A. and Chadee, K., 2015. Roles and regulation of the mucus barrier in the gut. Tissue barriers, 3(1-2): e982426.
6. Council, N.R. and Nutrition, S.o.P., 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry. National Academies Press.
7. El-Bahr, S.M. et al., 2020. Impact of dietary zinc oxide nanoparticles on selected serum biomarkers, lipid peroxidation and tissue gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and cytokines in Japanese quail. BMC veterinary research, 16: 1-12.
8. Fathi, M., Haydari, M. and Tanha, T., 2016. Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on antioxidant status, serum enzymes activities, biochemical parameters and performance in broiler chickens.J. Livest. Sci. Technol, 4(2): 7-13.
9. Fatima, A. et al., 2024. Zinc oxide nanoparticles significant role in poultry and novel toxicological mechanisms. Biological Trace Element Research, 202(1): 268-290.
10. Haque, M.H. et al., 2020. Sustainable antibiotic-free broiler meat production: Current trends, challenges, and possibilities in a developing country perspective. Biology, 9(11): 411.
11. Hatab, M.H. et al., 2023. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles as feed additive on blood indices, physiological, immunological responses, and histological changes in broiler chicks. Biological Trace Element Research: 1-15.
12. Hu, P. et al., 2024. Zinc intake ameliorates intestinal morphology and oxidative stress of broiler chickens under heat stress. Front. immunol., 14: 1308907.
13. Huang, C. et al., 2015. Heat stress impairs mitochondria functions and induces oxidative injury in broiler chickens. Anim. Sci. J., 93(5): 2144-2153.
14. Ibrahim, M.S., El-Gendi, G.M., Ahmed, A.I., El-Haroun, E.R. and Hassaan, M.S., 2022. Nano zinc versus bulk zinc form as dietary supplied: effects on growth, intestinal enzymes and topography, and hemato-biochemical and oxidative stress biomarker in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758). Biological trace element research, 200(3): 1347-1360.
15. Khajeh Bami, M., Afsharmanesh, M. and Ebrahimnejad, H., 2020. Effect of dietary Bacillus coagulans and different forms of zinc on performance, intestinal microbiota, carcass and meat quality of broiler chickens. Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins, 12: 461-472.
16. Khan, J. and Islam, M.N., 2012. Morphology of the intestinal barrier in different physiological and pathological conditions. Histopathology-Reviews and Recent Advances. Intech Publishers, Rijeka, Croatia: 133-152.
17. Lan, R., Li, Y., Chang, Q. and Zhao, Z., 2020. Dietary chitosan oligosaccharides alleviate heat stress–induced intestinal oxidative stress and inflammatory response in yellow-feather broilers. Poult. Sci., 99(12): 6745-6752.
18. Li, J. et al., 2019. Dietary chitooligosaccharide inclusion as an alternative to antibiotics improves intestinal morphology, barrier function, antioxidant capacity, and immunity of broilers at early age. Animals, 9(8): 493.
19. Lochi, G.M. et al., 2023. Effect of selenium nanoparticles and chitosan on production performance and antioxidant integrity of heat-stressed broiler. Biological Trace Element Research, 201(4): 1977-1986.
20. Mak, P.H., Rehman, M.A., Kiarie, E.G., Topp, E. and Diarra, M.S., 2022. Production systems and important antimicrobial resistant-pathogenic bacteria in poultry: a review. JAST, 13(1): 148.
21. MH, H., Rashad, E., Saleh, H.M. and El-Sayed, E.-S.R., 2022. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Productive Performance, Physiological, Histological Changes and Tissues Zn Concentration in Broiler Chicks.
22. Piray, A. and Foroutanifar, S., 2022. Chromium supplementation on the growth performance, carcass traits, blood constituents, and immune competence of broiler chickens under heat stress: A systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis. Biological trace element research, 200(6): 2876-2888.
23. Prasad, A.S. and Bao, B., 2019. Molecular mechanisms of zinc as a pro-antioxidant mediator: clinical therapeutic implications. Antioxidants, 8(6): 164.
24. Quinteiro-Filho, W.M. et al., 2010. Heat stress impairs performance parameters, induces intestinal injury, and decreases macrophage activity in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci., 89(9): 1905-1914.
25. Ramiah, S.K. et al., 2020. Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on regulatory appetite and heat stress protein genes in broiler chickens subjected to heat stress. Anim. Sci. J., 98(10): skaa300.
26. Reza, E.H., Kobra, S., Leila, S., Vahid, Y. and Esmaiel, A., 2014. Investigation of the zinc oxide nanoparticles effect on testosterone, cholesterol and cortisol in rats. Research Journal of Recent Sciences ISSN, 2277: 2502.
27. Shah, M. et al., 2020. Single or combined applications of zinc and multi-strain probiotic on intestinal histomorphology of broilers under cyclic heat stress. Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins, 12: 473-480.
28. Sirelkhatim, A. et al., 2015. Review on zinc oxide nanoparticles: antibacterial activity and toxicity mechanism. Nano-micro letters, 7: 219-242.
29. Sohail, M. et al., 2012. Effect of supplementation of prebiotic mannan-oligosaccharides and probiotic mixture on growth performance of broilers subjected to chronic heat stress. Poult. Sci., 91(9): 2235-2240.
30. Spencer, L., Bancroft, J., Bancroft, J. and Gamble, M., 2012. Tissue processing. Bancroft's Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 7nd ed. Netherlands, Amsterdam: Elsevier Health Sciences: 105-23.
31. Wang, C. et al., 2016. Effects of long-term exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles on development, zinc metabolism and biodistribution of minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn) in mice. PloS one, 11(10): e0164434.
32. Wu, Q., Liu, N., Wu, X., Wang, G. and Lin, L., 2018. Glutamine alleviates heat stress-induced impairment of intestinal morphology, intestinal inflammatory response, and barrier integrity in broilers. Poult. Sci.,97(8): 2675-2683.
33. Wu, Z., 2024. Approach Choices for Antimicrobial Use Reduction in European Food Animal Production. EuroChoices.
34. Zhang, J. et al., 2022. Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on growth, intestinal barrier, oxidative status and mineral deposition in 21-day-old broiler chicks. Biol. Trace Elem. Res.,200(4): 1826-1834.
35. Zhao, C.-Y. et al., 2014. Effects of dietary zinc oxide nanoparticles on growth performance and antioxidative status in broilers. Biol. Trace Elem. Res.,160: 361-367.

Most read articles by the same author(s)