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Areej Awan
Muhammad Hamza
Tajally Naeem
Maham Naveed
Ghania Ghani
Sami Ali Babekir
Saliha Naeem
Maryam Tariq
Sidra Aslam
Amna Rafeeq


Keto Diet, Epilepsy, Mediterranean Diet, Cognitive Health, Vegetarian Diet, Weight Loss, Diabetes, FAD Diets


Background: This review article critically examines the impact of the Ketogenic, Vegetarian, and Mediterranean diets on multifaceted health biomarkers. By keeping in mind the growing interest in diverse dietary patterns, the study utilizes existing literature to provide a comprehensive overview of the advantages and disadvantages associated with these fad diets. 

Methodology: A systematic literature review was conducted to gather relevant studies exploring the effects of Ketogenic, Vegetarian, and Mediterranean diets on multifaceted health biomarkers. Searches were performed on reputable databases, including Google Scholar and PubMed. The search strategy included keywords such as “Ketogenic diet,” “Vegetarian diet,” “Mediterranean diet,”.

Results: The Ketogenic diet exhibited specific benefits in weight management and therapeutic applications but raised concerns regarding nutrient deficiencies and adherence challenges. The Vegetarian diet demonstrated advantages in chronic disease prevention and environmental sustainability but faced drawbacks related to potential nutrient gaps and protein intake. The Mediterranean diet showcased positive effects on heart health, cognitive function, and anti-inflammatory markers, with challenges including sourcing difficulties and higher costs.

Conclusion: In conclusion, this review provides a comprehensive understanding of the pros and cons associated with the Ketogenic, Vegetarian, and Mediterranean diets concerning multifaceted health biomarkers. The present review contributes valuable insights to the existing body of knowledge, aiding individuals, healthcare professionals, and policymakers in making informed decisions about dietary choices and their impact on overall health.

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