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Sania Riaz
Andleeb Zahra
Fatima Haider
Nouman Shahzad Malik
Hafsah Shafique


Paw edema, Agave sisalana, Agave americana, phytochemicals, Aliskiren


Inflammation has been reported as an immune system regulator from the last two decades but cellular and molecular pathways involved in tissue damage has only been established in the recent era. Additionally, it has been involved in the morbidity of different diseases like cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. The control of two key players of inflammation i.e., prostaglandins and cytokines activation must be provided with different therapeutic strategies to control all the diseases that have close relationship with inflammatory biomarkers. Use of several pharmaceutical treatments for inflammation is in practice however prolonged usage even with physician supervision may have threat to kidney and liver failure. Researchers from different regions of the world are working on the phytotherapy to lessen the risks that are associated with the use of synthetic drugs. For this purpose, the anti-inflammatory potential of different leaf extracts was investigated via in-vivo study on rat model. With regard to inflammation in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, we aim to contrast the leaf extracts of Agave sisalana and Agave americana with standard drug Aliskiren. Twenty-five albino rats were grouped as control, positive control, standard drug, Agave sisalana extract and Agave americana extract treated. To demonstrate acute phase protein activation and a rise in inflammatory biomarkers in the positive control group, serum levels of CRP, TNF-, COX-2, and IL-10 were assessed. Bilirubin levels remain unchanged before and after treatments, however the positive control group has a decline in ALT, AST, Albumin, and A/G ratio. Alkaline phosphatase, total protein, and globulin revealed significant improvements after therapy when compared to the positive control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, histopathological analysis of paw skin of rats also revealed rete pegs and normal sub-epidermal structures. Edema and inflammatory cells diminished, and the epidermis became reddish. Agave species extract from Agave sisalana and Agave americana raised serum inflammatory indicators and promoted paw skin histology in groups that had been subjected to inflammation.

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