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Muhammad Sajid
Noor Ul Ain Nawaz
Sumaira Irum Khan
Junaid Ahmad
Shubana Hayat
Naseem Ullah
Zakia Subhan
Muhammad Usman Amin


Anemia, Body mass index, Hemoglobin, normocytic anemia, microcytic anemia, Macrocytic anemia


The study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Anemia and its associated factors among females studying at colleges and Universities in KPK, Pakistan.  This is the institutional based cross sectional study carried out in different academic institutes of KPK, Pakistan where 3000 female students aged between 18 to 25 years were included. The prevalence of anemia was assessed by taking the blood samples for blood test including hemoglobin (Hb), smear test, serum ferritin, vitamin B12 and folic acid.  An interview oriented questionnaire was designed to obtain all the relevant data. Height, weight, mid arm circumference, body mass index (BMI) of each female was determined. Dietary habbits of the population was also included. The financial status such as monthly income of the participants was also assessed. The prevalence of anemia was 58% in the population under study. The BMI and anemia were found associated with each other. The imbalanced and inadequate diet along with monthly income was the key factors for anemia among females under study. About 46.8% population had mild anemia, 10% had moderate anemia and 1.2% had severe anemia on the basis of hemoglobin. The population with anemia was divided on mean corpuscular volume (MCV) basis into three groups, Normocytic normochromic anemia (73.2%), hypochromic anemia (24.4%) and macrocytic anemia (2.4%).  The study revealed that anemia is very common among females, especially at the adult stage. It is the need of the hour to reform health care system so that the prevalence of anemia can be reduced.

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