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Muhammad Amjad Hussain
Muhammad Sajid
Sana Hafeez
Muhammad Sarfraz
Rida Rashid
Asia Riaz
Muhammad Tahir


colorectal cancer, gender, age, lifestyle, colonoscopy


Background: In the rapidly evolving landscape of education, the integration of technology has become pivotal for fostering effective learning environments. This study investigates the impact of adaptive learning platforms on educational outcomes, with a focus on secondary school settings. The increasing prevalence of digital tools in classrooms necessitates a comprehensive understanding of their influence on student performance and engagement.

Objective: The objective of this study was to relations of colorectal cancer with gender, age and lifestyle difference over age 45 years screened by colonoscopy in Lahore from 2022-2023.

Method: The study investigated colorectal cancer patterns at Shalamar Hospital's Oncology Department using a retrospective cohort design with a sample size of 40 individuals aged 45 and above who underwent colonoscopy screenings during the study period. Shalamar Hospital in Lahore served as the setting for this research. Inclusion criteria encompassed age and colonoscopy screenings at the Oncology Department, while exclusion criteria involved patients under 45 and those with a history of colorectal cancer. Data collectors, trained to maintain privacy, extracted information from available records, focusing on age, gender, colonoscopy findings, colorectal cancer diagnosis, and lifestyle factors. Descriptive statistics summarized the data, and inferential statistics assessed associations between colorectal cancer and gender, age, and lifestyle. Ethical considerations and patient privacy were prioritized throughout the study. The findings aimed to contribute insights into colorectal cancer trends at Shalamar Hospital, guiding potential tailored screening and prevention strategies.

Results: The correlations between colorectal cancer and various factors are presented in Table 3. The risk associated with being male and obesity were significantly higher. Age played a critical role, with the highest risk observed in the 45-54 age group. In contrast, regular physical activity and being female showed a lower association with colorectal cancer risk. Dietary habits, specifically high consumption of red/processed meat, and high intake of fruits/vegetables, were also significant factors. Smoking emerged as the factor with the highest odds ratio, underscoring its substantial impact on colorectal cancer risk.

Conclusion: The research findings have substantial implications for the proposed strategies aimed at preventing and screening colorectal cancer. The increased prevalence of colorectal cancer among those with a familial predisposition to the disease, a medical history of gastrointestinal disorders, or the presence of polyps emphasizes the need for early detection and targeted screening protocols in these at-risk groups. The correlation between lifestyle factors such as smoking, dietary habits, and obesity and the heightened susceptibility to colorectal cancer underscores the need for public health interventions that promote modifications in lifestyle. Moreover, the limited understanding of the hazards and indications of colorectal cancer underscores the imperative need for educational campaigns that advocate for timely screening and disseminate information. In summary, the results of this study suggest that a comprehensive approach is necessary to combat colorectal cancer. This approach aims to reduce the incidence of this widespread disease and enhance the welfare of those afflicted by integrating customized medical interventions with broader public health initiatives.

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