Knowledge And Attitude Towards the Challenges and Limitations in Covid Vaccine Development in Various Countries Among The Dental Population

Main Article Content

Samyuktha P S
Dr. Abilasha R

Keywords

Sars-CoV-19, Covid-19, Covid vaccine, Covid immunization, Coronavirus, novel technology, innovative technology

Abstract

Introduction: The current Covid-19 pandemic has urged the international scientific community to find solutions in regards to therapeutics and vaccine developments. Around 70 vaccines were being developed at the time of the survey. Any vaccine that is reliable, effective, permanent and accessible to a large population is a good candidate. The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge and attitude towards the challenges and limitations in Covid vaccine development in various countries among the dental population.
Materials And Method: A self structured online questionnaire was distributed among dental students through the platform Surveyplanet. The survey was distributed to 100 participants who were selected using Simple random sampling. The questionnaire consisted of 16 questions pertaining to Covid Vaccine development and its challenges and limitations. The results were tabulated and analyzed using SPSS software by IBM. Pie charts and bar graphs were used to graphically represent the data obtained.
Results: 47% of the participants were aware of the severity of Covid in our country, while 78% were aware that Covid vaccination programs had begun across the country at the time. 51% of the participants thought that Covishield was the most effective vaccine, in comparison to Pfizer, Moderna, Novovax and Covaxin. 36% of the participants believed that India was the frontrunner in vaccine development at the time, followed by the USA (25%). 47% believe that the safety and the testing of the developed vaccines might be hindered due to the time constraints and 69% believe that vaccination and immunisation will be effective against the spread of the coronavirus. Overall, more than 80% of the participants believe that there is a need to be vaccinated against the novel Covid-19.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that the dentists are knowledgeable and aware of the challenges and limitations of Covid vaccine development. This is imperative in guiding the general public and sharing knowledge and providing scientific facts so that the public can take an informed decision with regards to vaccination and immunization against the Sars-CoV-19. 

Abstract 61 | pdf Downloads 80

References

1. Kaur SP, Gupta V. COVID-19 Vaccine: A comprehensive status report. Virus Res. 2020 Oct 15;288:198114.
2. Ahn JY, Sohn Y, Lee SH, Cho Y, Hyun JH, Baek YJ, et al. Use of Convalescent Plasma Therapy in Two COVID-19 Patients with Acute Respiratory
Distress Syndrome in Korea [Internet]. Vol. 35, Journal of Korean Medical Science. 2020. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e149
3. Velavan TP, Meyer CG. The COVID-19 epidemic. Trop Med Int Health. 2020 Mar;25(3):278–80.
4. Shereen MA, Khan S, Kazmi A, Bashir N, Siddique R. COVID-19 infection: Emergence, transmission, and characteristics of human
coronaviruses [Internet]. Vol. 24, Journal of Advanced Research. 2020. p. 91–8. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2020.03.005
5. Amawi H, Abu Deiab GI, Aljabali AAA, Dua K, Tambuwala MM. COVID-19 pandemic: an overview of epidemiology, pathogenesis,
diagnostics and potential vaccines and therapeutics [Internet]. Vol. 11, Therapeutic Delivery. 2020. p. 245–68. Available from:
http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/tde-2020-0035
6. Umashankar K, R. A, R. H, Ramani P, S. G. Knowledge and Attitude About COVID-19 Pathogenesis Among Oral Pathologists in Chennai [Internet]. Vol. 12, International Journal of Current Research and Review. 2020. p. 143–51. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.31782/ijcrr.2020.sp17
7. Antony JVM, Vini Mary Antony J, Ramani P, Ramasubramanian A, Sukumaran G. Particle size, penetration rate and effects of smoke and smokeless tobacco products – an invitro analysis [Internet]. Vol. 7, Heliyon. 2021. p. e06455. Available from:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06455
8. R H, Hannah R, Ramani P, Ramanathan A, Jancy MR, Gheena S, et al. CYP2 C9 polymorphism among patients with oral squamous cell
carcinoma and its role in altering the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene [Internet]. Vol. 130, Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology. 2020. p. 306–12. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2020.06.021
9. Analysis of Prevalence of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Patients with History of Chronic Irritation of Oral Tissues - A Retrospective Study
[Internet]. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology. 2020. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.37506/ijfmt.v14i4.12511
10. K M, Monica K, Vijayshree PJ, Gheena S, Ramani P, Abhilasha R, et al. In Silico Gene Expression Analysis Of Crucial Cell Cycle Control Gene Cdkn2a And Cdkn2b In Head And Neck Squamous Cell CarcinomA [Internet]. Vol. 23, Annals of Tropical Medicine & Public Health. 2020. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.36295/asro.2020.232323
11. Sinduja P, Ramani P, Gheena S, Ramasubramanian A. Expression of metallothionein in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A systematic review [Internet]. Vol. 24, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 2020. p. 143. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jomfp.jomfp_137_19
12. Aljabali AAA, Bakshi HA, Satija S, Metha M, Prasher P, Ennab RM, et al. COVID-19: Underpinning Research for Detection, Therapeutics, and Vaccines Development [Internet]. Vol. 8, Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology. 2020. p. 323–53. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2211738508999200817163335
13. Howard G, Bartram J, Brocklehurst C, Colford JM, Costa F, Cunliffe D, et al. COVID-19: urgent actions, critical reflections and futurerelevance of “WaSH”: lessons for the current and future pandemics [Internet]. Vol. 18, Journal of Water and Health. 2020. p. 613–30. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2020.162
14. Saxena SK. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID19): Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Therapeutics. Springer Nature; 2020. 213 p.
15. Yi Y, Lagniton PNP, Ye S, Li E, Xu RH. COVID19: what has been learned and to be learned about the novel coronavirus disease. Int J Biol Sci. 2020 Mar 15;16(10):1753–66.
16. Mukherjee R. Global efforts on vaccines for COVID-19: Since, sooner or later, we all will catch the coronavirus. J Biosci [Internet].
2020;45. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32385219
17. Calina D, Docea A, Petrakis D, Egorov A, Ishmukhametov A, Gabibov A, et al. Towards effective COVID‑19 vaccines: Updates, perspectives and challenges (Review) [Internet]. Vol. 46, International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2020. p. 3–16. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2020.4596
18. Neelakantan P, Grotra D, Sharma S. Retreatability of 2 mineral trioxide aggregatebased root canal sealers: a cone-beam computed tomography analysis. J Endod. 2013 Jul;39(7):893–6.
19. Aldhuwayhi S, Mallineni SK, Sakhamuri S, Thakare AA, Mallineni S, Sajja R, et al. Covid-19 Knowledge and Perceptions Among Dental Specialists: A Cross-Sectional Online Questionnaire Survey. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2021 Jul 7;14:2851–61.
20. Sheriff KAH, Ahmed Hilal Sheriff K, Santhanam A. Knowledge and Awareness towards Oral Biopsy among Students of Saveetha Dental
College [Internet]. Vol. 11, Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2018. p. 543. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-
360x.2018.00101.4
21. Markov A, Thangavelu L, Aravindhan S, Zekiy AO, Jarahian M, Chartrand MS, et al. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells as a valuable
source for the treatment of immune-mediated disorders. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021 Mar 18;12(1):192.
22. Jayaraj G, Ramani P, Herald J. Sherlin, Premkumar P, Anuja N. Inter-observer agreement in grading oral epithelial dysplasia – A systematic
review [Internet]. Vol. 27, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology. 2015. p. 112–6. Available from:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajoms.2014.01.006
23. Paramasivam A, Priyadharsini JV, Raghunandhakumar S, Elumalai P. A novel COVID-19 and its effects on cardiovascular disease. Hypertens Res. 2020 Jul;43(7):729–30.
24. Li Z, Veeraraghavan VP, Mohan SK, Bolla SR, Lakshmanan H, Kumaran S, et al. Apoptotic induction and anti-metastatic activity of eugenol
encapsulated chitosan nanopolymer on rat glioma C6 cells via alleviating the MMP signaling pathway [Internet]. Vol. 203, Journal of
Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2020. p. 111773. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111773
25. Gan H, Zhang Y, Zhou Q, Zheng L, Xie X, Veeraraghavan VP, et al. Zingerone induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and
prevents 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthraceneinduced mammary carcinogenesis in experimental rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2019 Oct;33(10):e22387.26. Dua K, Wadhwa R, Singhvi G, Rapalli V, Shukla SD, Shastri MD, et al. The potential of siRNA based drug delivery in respiratory disorders: Recent advances and progress. Drug Dev Res. 2019 Sep;80(6):714–30.
27. Mohan M, Jagannathan N. Oral field cancerization: an update on current concepts. Oncol Rev. 2014 Mar 17;8(1):244.
28. Savi CD, De Savi C, Hughes DL, Kvaerno L. Quest for a COVID-19 Cure by Repurposing Small-Molecule Drugs: Mechanism of Action, Clinical Development, Synthesis at Scale, and Outlook for Supply [Internet]. Vol. 24, Organic Process Research & Development. 2020. p. 940–76. Available from:http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.oprd.0c00233
29. Gouglas D, Le TT, Henderson K, Kaloudis A, Danielsen T, Hammersland NC, et al. Estimating the cost of vaccine development against epidemic infectious diseases: a cost minimisation study [Internet]. Vol. 6, The Lancet Global Health.
2018. p. e1386–96. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s2214-109x(18)30346-2
30. Le TT, Andreadakis Z, Kumar A, Román RG, Tollefsen S, Saville M, et al. The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape [Internet]. Vol. 19, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 2020. p. 305–6. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41573-020-00073-5
31. Graham RL, Donaldson EF, Baric RS. A decade after SARS: strategies for controlling emerging coronaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2013
Dec;11(12):836–48.
32. Bhagavathula AS, Aldhaleei WA, Rovetta A, Rahmani J. Vaccines and Drug Therapeutics to Lock Down Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials. Cureus. 2020 May 28;12(5):e8342.
33. Zhang L, Liu Y. Potential interventions for novel coronavirus in China: A systematic review [Internet]. Vol. 92, Journal of Medical Virology. 2020. p. 479–90. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25707
34. Tu YF, Chien CS, Yarmishyn AA, Lin YY, Luo YH, Lin YT, et al. A Review of SARS-CoV-2 and the Ongoing Clinical Trials. Int J Mol Sci
[Internet]. 2020 Apr 10;21(7). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072657
35. Smith TRF, Patel A, Ramos S, Elwood D, Zhu X, Yan J, et al. Immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine candidate for COVID-19. Nat Commun. 2020 May 20;11(1):2601.
36. Dhama K, Sharun K, Tiwari R, Dadar M, Malik YS, Singh KP, et al. COVID-19, an emerging coronavirus infection: advances and prospects in designing and developing vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and therapeutics. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2020 Jun 2;16(6):1232–8.
37. Sah R, Shrestha S, Mehta R, Sah SK, Rabaan AA, Dhama K, et al. AZD1222 (Covishield) vaccination for COVID-19: Experiences, challenges, and solutions in Nepal [Internet]. Vol. 40, Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2021. p. 101989. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2021.101989
38. Ramani P, Krishnan R, Karunagaran M, Muthusekhar MR. Odontogenic sarcoma: First report after new who nomenclature with systematic review [Internet]. Vol. 24, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 2020. p. 157. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jomfp.jomfp_14_20
39. K S, Suvarna K, Hannah R, Gheena S, Ramani P, Abilasha R. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among patients with oral squamous cell
carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders - A retrospective study [Internet]. Vol. 11, International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020. p. 635–41. Available from:http://dx.doi.org/10.26452/ijrps.v11ispl4.4009
40. Ramasubramanian A, Ramani P, Sherlin H, Premkumar P, Natesan A, Thiruvengadam C. Immunohistochemical evaluation of oral epithelial dysplasia using cyclin-D1, p27 and p63 expression as predictors of malignant transformation [Internet]. Vol. 4, Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine. 2013. p. 349. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0976-9668.117011
41. E A, Aswani E, Gheena S, Pratibha R, Abilasha R, Hannah R, et al. Overexpression of HNRNPA2B1 is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma [Internet]. International Journal of Current Research and Review. 2020. p. 15–8. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.31782/ijcrr.2020.122502
42. Association of the Depth of Invasion wth Lymph Node Metastasis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients - A Retrospective Study
[Internet]. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology. 2020. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.37506/ijfmt.v14i4.12542
43. Sukumaran G, Ramani P, Ramasubramanian A, Karunagaran M, Ravikumar H. Implantation Dermoid Cyst [Internet]. Vol. 8, Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2019. p. 4023–5. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.14260/jemds/2019/871
44. Thamilselvan S, Abilasha R, Ramani P, Gheena S, Hannah R. Evaluation of Accuracy between Habit History and Incidence of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma [Internet]. International Journal of Current Research and Review. 2020. p. 30–5. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.31782/ijcrr.2020.122503
45. A study on the variability of drug responsiveness to anti inflammatory drugs - A pilot survey [Internet]. Vol. 12, International Journal of
Pharmaceutical Research. 2020. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.31838/ijpr/2020.12.02.0261
46. Krishnan R, Ramani P, Sukumaran G, Ramasubramanian A, Karunagaran M, Hannah R. Workplace violence among dental surgeons - A
survey [Internet]. Vol. 0, Indian Journal of Dental Research. 2021. p. 0. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijdr.ijdr_880_19
47. Wang F, Kream RM, Stefano GB. An Evidence Based Perspective on mRNA-SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Development. Med Sci Monit. 2020 May 5;26:e924700.
48. Mondal MRH, Bharati S, Podder P, Podder P. Data analytics for novel coronavirus disease. Inform Med Unlocked. 2020 Jun 15;20:100374.