Traditional Cauterization Among Children in Bint Al-Huda Hospital in Al-Nasiriya City, Iraq

Main Article Content

Abdullah Hmood Abdullah
Raid kareem Dehiol


Traditional Cauterization, Children


Cutaneous Cautery is a form of traditional medicine inherited in many countries. It was mentioned in the books of many ancient, pre-Islamic and post-Islamic scholars. Patients may resort to traditional medicine (cauterization in particular) for many reasons.

The aim of this study is to get more knowledge about the cautery practices, and the reasons for practicing cautery in children together with other implications from adverse events of the cautery.

This is a cross-sectional study was in which 133 children were enrolled  (77 males and 56 females with age ranged from 0.5-108 months) who had been admitted to Bint Al-Huda Maternity and childhood Teaching Hospital in Nasiriya city , Thi-Qar Governorate, southern Iraq, from 1st of December 2019 – to end of July 2020).

The study found that >80% of cauterized children were of age group bellow 1 year, (53.4%) of rural residency. Parents of the cauterized children were mainly of illiterate  and primary teaching  constituting the highest percent, (91.6%) of cauterized children were of low per capita monthly income, the grand-mothers were the adviser in more than half of the cauterized children, vast majority of the advisor were illiterate  and primary teaching , the person who do the cautery was the traditional healer in (95.5%). Cauterization was done mostly in head and abdomen, and vast majority of it was done by lightened cotton tipped application (97%).The number of cauterization points has ranged from 2-25 with mean of 8.8 cautery marks . About 59% of patients not improved or  worsen, while 30% show partial improvement and 11% improved. Complications seen in 9% of cases.

There is a necessity of spreading awareness about the dangers and complications of traditional cauterization in health care centers and by health care providers. Improving  the delivery of medical services to areas far from city centers as well as spreading health awareness in multimedia together with the control of illiteracy.

Abstract 128 | pdf Downloads 79 PDF Downloads 102 XML Downloads 45 HTML Downloads 342


1. Traditional medicine: definitions. [website]. Geneva: World Health Organization (who); (https://, accessed 28 April 2017).
2. World Health Organization. General guidelines for methodologies on research and evaluation of traditional medicine .2000:1.
3. Al Saadoon MA, Al Jafari MS, , Al Dhouyani BD, Rizvi S. Factors associated with pediatrician attitudes over the use of complementary and traditional medicine on children in Muscat, Oman. International journal of health policy and management. 2015;4:65-68.
4. Al-Hashel JY, Farouk S A, Alshawaf FJ, Alroughani R. Use of traditional medicine for primary headache disorders in Kuwait. The Journal of Headache and Pain. 2018;19:118.
5. Shimelmitz R, Kuhn SL, Jelinek AJ, Ronen A, Clark AE, Weinstein-Evron M. ‘Fire at will’: The emergence of habitual fire use 350,000 years ago. Journal Human Evolution. 2014;77:196-203.
6. Allen, James P. The art of medicine in ancient Egypt. New York/New Haven: The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Yale University Press; 2005.
7. Abou-Elhamd K-EA. Kaiy as Traditional Therapy for Pain: Is it Helpful or a Myth? The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 2009; 123:566-568.
8. Forrest RD. Early history of wound treatment. Journal Royal Society Medicine. 1982;75:198-205.
9. Champaneria MC, Workman AD, Gupta SC. Sushruta: Father of plastic surgery. Annals Plastic Surgery. 2014;73(1):2-7. DOI: 10.1097/SAP.0b013e31827ae9f5.
10. Bakhashi B, Gupta SK, Rajagopala M, Bhuyan C. A comparative study of Agnikarma with Lauha, Tamra and Panchadhatu Shalakas in Gridhrasi (Sciatica). Ayurveda. 2010;31(2):240-244. DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.72408.
11. Alsanad SM, Asim AAH, Gazzaffi IMA, Qureshi NA. History of Cautery: The Impact of Ancient Cultures. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research.2018;25(9):1-17.
12. Al-Rowais N, Al-Faris E, Mohammad AG, Al-Rukban M, Abdulghani HM. Traditional healers in Riyadh region: reasons and health problems for seeking their advice. A household survey. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16:199–204.
13. Nikhat S, Fazil M. Kaya (cauterization): A tribute to Unani scholars. Medical Journal Islamic World Academy of Sciences. 2013;109(892):1-8.
14. Hajar Albilani H A. special section. Heart Views 2003;4:5.
15. Watts HG. Cutaneous Cautery (Al-Kowie): A Study in a Pediatric Outpatient Clinic in Central Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine.1989;9.
16. Wand-Tetley JI: Historical methods of counter-irritation. Ann Phys Med. 1956, 3: 90-99.
17. Sultana A, Ansari S. Medical and scientific basis of cauterization (Kai). International Journal of Current Research. 2016;8(5):31942-31944.
18. (Razi, 2004; IbneSina, 1992).
19. S. Raza, K. Mahmood, A. Hakeem et al., “Adverse clinical sequelae after skin branding: a case series,” Journal of Medical Case Reports, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 25, 2009.
20. Al-Kaabi JM, Scrimgeour EM, Louon A, Al-Riyami BM. Tetanus: a clinical review. Neurosciences. 2001;6:220–223.
21. Al-binali AM, alhuneif MA, Al-Huneif SM, Mostafa OA, alfifi SH, Mahfouz AA. Perception of Cautery Healing Effect Among Infants’ Parents at the Southwestern Area of Saudi Arabia. Global Journal of Medical research: F Diseases. 2014;14.
22. Farid MK, El-Mansoury A. Kaiy (traditional cauterization) in Benghazi, Libya: complications versus effectiveness. Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;22(1).
23. Satti Abdelrahim, Mohamed-Omer SF, Hajabubker MA. Pattern and determinants of use of traditional treatments in children attending Gaafar Ibnauf Children’s Hospital, Sudan. Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics. 2016;16(2):45.
24. Dmitry Olegovich Bokov, Abduladheem Turki Jalil, Forat H. Alsultany, Mustafa Z. Mahmoud, Wanich Suksatan, Supat Chupradit, Maytham T. Qasim & Parvaneh Delir Kheirollahi Nezhad. Ir-decorated gallium nitride nanotubes as a chemical sensor for recognition of mesalamine drug: a DFT study, Molecular Simulation, 2022. DOI: 10.1080/08927022.2021.2025234
25. Ansari, M.J., Jasim, S.A., Taban, T.Z. et al. Anticancer Drug-Loading Capacity of Green Synthesized Porous Magnetic Iron Nanocarrier and Cytotoxic Effects Against Human Cancer Cell Line. J Clust Sci (2022).
26. Huldani Huldani, Saade Abdalkareem Jasim, Dmitry Olegovich Bokov, Walid Kamal Abdelbasset, Mohammed Nader Shalaby, Lakshmi Thangavelu, Ria Margiana, Maytham T. Qasim. Application of extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stem cells as potential therapeutic tools in autoimmune and rheumatic diseases, International Immunopharmacology,Volume 106, 2022, 108634, ISSN 1567-5769,
27. Zadeh, Firoozeh Abolhasani, et al. "Cytotoxicity evaluation of environmentally friendly synthesis Copper/Zinc bimetallic nanoparticles on MCF-7 cancer cells." Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali (2022): 1-7.‏
28. Hafsan Hafsan,Dmitry Bokov,Walid Kamal Abdelbasset,Mustafa M. Kadhim,Wanich Suksatan,Hasan Sh. Majdi,et al . Dietary Dracocephalum kotschyi essential oil improved growth, haematology, immunity and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2022.