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Sama Khaliq
Umar Akhter
Sidra Mushtaq
Nadeem Yaqoob
Rao Salman Aziz
Shoaib Ahmed


Antibiotic resistance, urinary tract infections, children


Paediatric UTIs are among the most frequent illnesses. This discussion's context and goal are below. The arbitrary use of antibiotics has increased the number of antibiotic-resistant germs and disseminated them to other illnesses. In children aged nine who were diagnosed with urinary tract infections and referred to the hospital, this study examined resistance progression.

Place of study: Children’s Hospital, Lahore

Study Design: Cross-sectional study

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study examined all children diagnosed with urinary tract infections between 2021 and 2023. Reviewing patient healthcare records yielded 1.5 years of data. The patient's age, gender, antibiotic resistance profile, urine culture results, and UTI history were included. Clinical and microbiological criteria were considered for case selection.

Result: The study found that E. coli was the most prevalent bacterium in urine samples. The high antibiotic resistance rates for Cefixime (72.7%) and Ceftriaxone (67.4%) make treating paediatric UTIs, especially E. coli-caused ones, problematic. Further susceptibility studies showed that Amoxicillin (94.2%) and Cephalexin, Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (93.3%) were the most susceptible antibiotics, suggesting they could treat paediatric UTIs. Resistance patterns over 1.5 years demonstrated sensitivity and rate variations.  Males and females displayed different resistance patterns to Amoxicillin, Cephalexin, Co-trimoxazole (Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole), and Nitrofurantoin, according to statistical analysis. This difference was substantial (P>0.05).

Conclusion: According to the study, 94.2% of the strains tested respond to Amoxicillin, making it a suitable treatment. Antimicrobial stewardship strategies and drug resistance monitoring may prevent urinary tract infection (UTI) mistreatment.

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