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Muizz Zahoor
Saad Zahoor
Saiqa Zahoor
Aisha Wazir


Heart failure, raised red blood cell distribution width, ejection fraction.


BACKGROUND: Heart failure occurs when the ability to pump blood decreases causing accumulation of fluid in the lungs, lower limbs, abdomen and other parts of the body which leads to the symptoms of dyspnoea and generalized swelling in the body. In reduced ejection fraction heart failure, the ejection fraction of heart becomes less than 50% on echocardiography. The cause may be due to dilation of the cardiac chambers, ischemia or hypertrophy etc.

Since last decade studies have indicated that increased red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure as well as with the development of heart failure.

OBJECTIVE: To determine frequency of raised red blood cell distribution width in patients with reduced ejection fraction heart failure.

METHODOLOGY: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Cardiology, MTI-Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from 14 May, 2020 to 14 Nov, 2020. Nonprobability consecutive sampling technique was used. Patients from both genders, admitted in the cardiology department were included according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Informed consent was taken before the start of data collection and all pros and cons were explained to the patient or to next of kin.

RESULTS: A total of 196 patients were observed. Mean age of the patients was 57.22+5.53 years.  Majority of patients were in 51-70 years age group. Number of male patients was greater 149 (76%) than female patients 47 (24%). Out of total patients, 50.5% had increased RDW. Increased RDW was stratified according to age, gender, Hb level and duration of heart failure.

CONCLUSION: Prevalence of RDW in HF with reduced ejection suggests that RDW may help in risk stratification of patients at the time of admission.

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