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Hüseyin Şahin
Maha Naseer
Salma Saddeek
Zuhaa Imtiaz


Quinoa, nutrition profile, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, β-glucans, fiber, energy


Glycemic indices are raised in prediabetes, a hyperglycemic state that is not yet as high as in diabetes. With an annual conversion rate of 5%–10%, prediabetes still carries a substantial risk of acquiring diabetes, despite variations in diagnostic standards across the major international professional groups. Preliminary evidence suggests a connection between prediabetes and the consequences of diabetes, such as early retinopathy, early nephropathy, small fiber neuropathy, and an increased risk of macrovascular disease. Several studies have shown that altering one's lifestyle can effectively prevent diabetes, with a 40%–70% relative risk decrease in those who already have prediabetes. People have been using cinnamon as a spice and a herbal cure for a long time. Based on research conducted in vitro and on animals in vivo, cinnamon may have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, cardiovascular, cholesterol-lowering, and immunomodulatory effects. In vitro studies suggests that cinnamon may function as an insulin mimic, enhance insulin action, or boost cellular glucose metabolism. Studies on animals have also demonstrated the substance's strong hypoglycemic effects. The anti-hyperglycemic properties of quinoa combined with cinnamon stick powder were the main focus of this investigation. 45 female pre-diabetic subjects were separated into three groups for this purpose. Treatment groups 1 and 2 had quinoa alone and quinoa with 20g of cinnamon powder for breakfast, respectively, whereas the control group received no treatment. The first and last days of the experiment, after consuming quinoa enriched with cinnamon, were used to test fasting and random blood sugar levels. In addition, HbA1c levels were assessed before and after the trial. An ANOVA test revealed that adding cinnamon stick powder to quinoa significantly lowered fasting and random blood sugar levels. HbA1c, a sign of insulin resistance, decreased in the therapy group as well. Fasting blood sugar, however, did not fall in the control or treatment groups. Results from treatment group 2 were superior to those from treatment group 1. At p0.05, all results were deemed significant.



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