INVESTIGATING THE THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA) WITH CINNAMON SUPPLEMENTATION AGAINST HYPERGLYCEMIA BIOMARKERS IN PRE-DIABETIC HUMAN FEMALE SUBJECTS

Main Article Content

Hüseyin Şahin
Maha Naseer
Salma Saddeek
Zuhaa Imtiaz

Keywords

Quinoa, nutrition profile, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, β-glucans, fiber, energy

Abstract

Glycemic indices are raised in prediabetes, a hyperglycemic state that is not yet as high as in diabetes. With an annual conversion rate of 5%–10%, prediabetes still carries a substantial risk of acquiring diabetes, despite variations in diagnostic standards across the major international professional groups. Preliminary evidence suggests a connection between prediabetes and the consequences of diabetes, such as early retinopathy, early nephropathy, small fiber neuropathy, and an increased risk of macrovascular disease. Several studies have shown that altering one's lifestyle can effectively prevent diabetes, with a 40%–70% relative risk decrease in those who already have prediabetes. People have been using cinnamon as a spice and a herbal cure for a long time. Based on research conducted in vitro and on animals in vivo, cinnamon may have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, cardiovascular, cholesterol-lowering, and immunomodulatory effects. In vitro studies suggests that cinnamon may function as an insulin mimic, enhance insulin action, or boost cellular glucose metabolism. Studies on animals have also demonstrated the substance's strong hypoglycemic effects. The anti-hyperglycemic properties of quinoa combined with cinnamon stick powder were the main focus of this investigation. 45 female pre-diabetic subjects were separated into three groups for this purpose. Treatment groups 1 and 2 had quinoa alone and quinoa with 20g of cinnamon powder for breakfast, respectively, whereas the control group received no treatment. The first and last days of the experiment, after consuming quinoa enriched with cinnamon, were used to test fasting and random blood sugar levels. In addition, HbA1c levels were assessed before and after the trial. An ANOVA test revealed that adding cinnamon stick powder to quinoa significantly lowered fasting and random blood sugar levels. HbA1c, a sign of insulin resistance, decreased in the therapy group as well. Fasting blood sugar, however, did not fall in the control or treatment groups. Results from treatment group 2 were superior to those from treatment group 1. At p0.05, all results were deemed significant.


 


 

Abstract 142 | PDF Downloads 55

References

1. World Health Organization, World Health Organization. Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycemia: report of a WHO/IDF consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006. pp. 1–50.
2. Bansal, N. (2015). Prediabetes diagnosis and treatment: A review. World journal of diabetes, 6(2), 296.
3. Gabir MM, Hanson RL, Dabelea D, Imperatore G, Roumain J, Bennett PH, Knowler WC. Plasma glucose and prediction of microvascular disease and mortality: evaluation of 1997 American Diabetes Association and 1999 World Health Organization criteria for diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2000;23:1113–1118.
4. Gabir, M. M., Hanson, R. L., Dabelea, D., Imperatore, G. I. U. S. E. P. P. I. N. A., Roumain, J. A. N. I. N. E., Bennett, P. H., & Knowler, W. C. (2000). Plasma glucose and prediction of microvascular disease and mortality: evaluation of 1997 American Diabetes Association and 1999 World Health Organization criteria for diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes care, 23(8), 1113-1118.
5. Vega‐Gálvez, A., Miranda, M., Vergara, J., Uribe, E., Puente, L., & Martínez, E. A. (2010). Nutrition facts and functional potential of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.), an ancient Andean grain: a review. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90(15), 2541-2547.
6. Kumpun, S., Maria, A., Crouzet, S., Evrard-Todeschi, N., Girault, J. P., & Lafont, R. (2011). Ecdysteroids from Chenopodium quinoa Willd., an ancient Andean crop of high nutritional value. Food Chemistry, 125(4), 1226-1234.
7. El Hazzam, K., Hafsa, J., Sobeh, M., Mhada, M., Taourirte, M., El Kacimi, K., & Yasri, A. (2020). An insight into saponins from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd): A review. Molecules, 25(5), 1059.
8. Huang, T. C., Fu, H. Y., Ho, C. T., Tan, D., Huang, Y. T., & Pan, M. H. (2007). Induction of apoptosis by cinnamaldehyde from indigenous cinnamon Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh through reactive oxygen species production, glutathione depletion, and caspase activation in human leukemia K562 cells. Food chemistry, 103(2), 434-443.
9. Chang, C. W., Chang, W. L., Chang, S. T., & Cheng, S. S. (2008). Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils against Legionella pneumophila. Water research, 42(1-2), 278-286.
10. Kestilä, K. K., Ekblad, U. U., & Rönnemaa, T. (2007). Continuous glucose monitoring versus self-monitoring of blood glucose in the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 77(2), 174-179.
11. Muchmore, D. B., Springer, J., & Miller, M. (1994). Self-monitoring of blood glucose in overweight type 2 diabetic patients. Acta diabetologica, 31, 215-219.
12. Reynolds, T. M., Smellie, W. S. A., & Twomey, P. J. (2006). Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) monitoring. Bmj, 333(7568), 586-588.
13. Heeren, T., & D'Agostino, R. (1987). Robustness of the two independent samples t‐test when applied to ordinal scaled data. Statistics in medicine, 6(1), 79-90.
14. Anderson, R. A., Broadhurst, C. L., Polansky, M. M., Schmidt, W. F., Khan, A., Flanagan, V. P., ... & Graves, D. J. (2004). Isolation and characterization of polyphenol type-A polymers from cinnamon with insulin-like biological activity. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 52(1), 65-70.
15. Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen, H., Hansi Priscilla, D., & Thirumurugan, K. (2011). Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats. Nutrition & metabolism, 8, 1-11.

16. Mathew, G., Agha, R., Albrecht, J., Goel, P., Mukherjee, I., Pai, P., ... & Noureldin, A. (2021). STROCSS 2021: strengthening the reporting of cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies in surgery. International Journal of Surgery Open, 37, 100430.
17. Makvandi, P., Wang, C. Y., Zare, E. N., Borzacchiello, A., Niu, L. N., & Tay, F. R. (2020). Metal‐based nanomaterials in biomedical applications: antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity aspects. Advanced Functional Materials, 30(22), 1910021.
18. Noratto, G. D., Murphy, K., & Chew, B. P. (2019). Quinoa intake reduces plasma and liver cholesterol, lessens obesity-associated inflammation, and helps to prevent hepatic steatosis in obese db/db mouse. Food chemistry, 287, 107-114.
19. Zhou, K., Yang, J., Loy, C. C., & Liu, Z. (2022). Learning to prompt for vision-language models. International Journal of Computer Vision, 130(9), 2337-2348.
20. Ujiroghene, O. J., Liu, L., Zhang, S., Lu, J., Zhang, C., Lv, J., ... & Zhang, M. (2019). Antioxidant capacity of germinated quinoa-based yoghurt and concomitant effect of sprouting on its functional properties. Lwt, 116, 108592.