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Aasia Kalsoom
Awais Altaf
Tahir Maqbool
Saira Aftab
Huma Sattar
Muhammad Sajjad
Asia Kiran


Cassia angustifolia, HeLa cell line, anticancer phytocompounds, gene expression, molecular docking


Cassia angustifolia (CA: senna makkai) is a medicinal plant that belongs to Saudi Arabia and Egypt and is widely cultivated in Pakistan. This study was designed for the in vitro anticancer assessment of Cassia extracts on cervical (HeLa) cancer and noncancer human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T) cell lines. The MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) and crystal violet assays were performed to determine the cytotoxicity of extracts. For the mRNA expression analysis of p53 and Bcl2, the SYBR Green-based Real-time PCR was performed. Molecular interaction analysis and binding affinity were explored between target proteins (TP53, BCL2, EGFR, and HER2) and compounds through computational approaches. GCMS was used to identify the phytocompounds with anticancer potential using ethanol (ECA) and n-hexane (HCA) solvent systems. GCMS analysis showed the presence of bioactive phytochemicals in both CA extracts. These extracts demonstrated dose-dependent growth inhibition of tumor cells with an IC50 value of 50 and 76 µg/mL. Significant downregulation of TP53 (tumor suppressor) and upregulation of the BCL-2 (antiapoptotic) proteins was observed after treatment with CV extracts. Phenol, 2-methyl-5-(1,2,2-trimethylcyclopentyl)-, (S)- was observed as the most potential bioactive compound towards TP53 (-7.5) (kcal/mol) protein, followed by Isophytol (-6.9). This work highlights cancer-target proteins involved in proliferation and drug-like compounds for cervical cancer treatment. Based on all these findings, it is concluded that ECA extract has promising anticancer potential and might be valued for the advancement of novel plant-derived drugs for treating and managing cervical cancer.

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