Main Article Content

Ayesha Sadiq
Bilal Ahmad
Khuzin Dinislam
Nigar Aksar
Tariq Ahmed
Hajira Bibi


H. pylori infection, Hematological parameters, APEX1 gene, Gastric cancer, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Genetic


Background: Gastric cancer remains a significant global health concern, with its progression influenced by a myriad of genetic and environmental factors. Among these factors, the interaction between host genes and infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), has garnered attention for its potential role in gastric carcinogenesis.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the association between H. pylori infection and alterations in hematological parameters, as well as the detection of H. pylori APEX-1 genes such as (EXON-1, EXON-2 & EXON-3) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the APEX1 gene. Blood samples were obtained from gastric patients and a control group, and hematological parameters including white blood cell counts, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were measured.

Results: The results indicated no significant differences in WBC, RBC, HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH, and MCHC between gastric patients and the control group (p > 0.05). However, a statistically significant decrease in platelet count was observed in gastric patients compared to the control group (283 ± 67.50 vs. 261 ± 57, p = 0.034). Additionally, DNA extracted from H. pylori positive blood samples underwent PCR targeting APEX1 gene, confirming H. pylori positivity. Positive PCR results were observed in samples S1 and S2, displaying a product size of 342 base pairs. Moreover, samples S35, S36, S37, and S71 exhibited positive PCR results in exon 5 of APEX1, with a product size of 292 base pairs.

Conclusion: This study provides insights into the potential correlation between H. pylori infection, hematological parameters, and genetic alterations in the APEX1 gene. Further research is warranted to explore the clinical implications of these findings in the context of gastric cancer development.

Abstract 149 | pdf Downloads 46


1. Smyth EC, Nilsson M, Grabsch HI, van Grieken NC, Lordick F. Gastric cancer. The Lancet. 2020;396(10251):635-48.
2. Georgopoulos S, Papastergiou V. An update on current and advancing pharmacotherapy options for the treatment of H. pylori infection. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. 2021;22(6):729-41.
3. Cao L, Cheng H, Jiang Q, Li H, Wu Z. APEX1 is a novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma. Aging (Albany NY). 2020;12(5):4573.
4. He H, Song F, Gao Q, Lu Z, Yuan Y, Li X, et al. The APEX1/miRNA-27a-5p axis plays key roles in progression, metastasis and targeted chemotherapy of gastric cancer. International journal of pharmaceutics. 2021;599:120446.
5. Sun Z, Chen G, Wang L, Sang Q, Xu G, Zhang N. APEX1 promotes the oncogenicity of hepatocellular carcinoma via regulation of MAP2K6. Aging (Albany NY). 2022;14(19):7959.
6. Tshibangu-Kabamba E, Yamaoka Y. Helicobacter pylori infection and antibiotic resistance—from biology to clinical implications. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2021;18(9):613-29.
7. Godbole G, Mégraud F, Bessède E. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter. 2020;25:e12735.
8. den Hoed CM, Kuipers EJ. Helicobacter pylori infection. Hunter's Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases: Elsevier; 2020. p. 476-80.
9. Mladenova I. Clinical relevance of Helicobacter pylori infection. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021;10(16):3473.
10. Saad AM, Abdel‐Megied AE, Elbaz RA, Hassab El‐Nabi SE, Elshazli RM. Genetic variants of APEX1 p. Asp148Glu and XRCC1 p. Gln399Arg with the susceptibility of hepatocellular carcinoma. Journal of Medical Virology. 2021;93(11):6278-91.
11. Ziółkowska S, Kosmalski M, Kołodziej Ł, Jabłkowska A, Szemraj JZ, Pietras T, et al. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in base-excision repair-related genes involved in the risk of an occurrence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2023;24(14):11307.
12. Senghore T, Chien H-T, Wang W-C, Chen Y-X, Young C-K, Huang S-F, et al. Predictive value of genetic variants XRCC1 rs1799782, APEX1 rs1760944, and MUTYH rs3219489 for adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy outcomes in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. The Pharmacogenomics Journal. 2020;20(6):813-22.
13. Shaz SK. Contribution of viruses to cancer and its global burden. Global Journal of Cancer Therapy. 2019;5(1):012-5.
14. Heravi FS, Zakrzewski M, Vickery K, Hu H. Host DNA depletion efficiency of microbiome DNA enrichment methods in infected tissue samples. Journal of microbiological methods. 2020;170:105856.
15. Finaughty C, Heathfield LJ, Kemp V, Marquez-Grant N. Forensic DNA extraction methods for human hard tissue: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of technologies and sample type. Forensic Science International: Genetics. 2023;63:102818.
16. Lee PY, Saraygord-Afshari N, Low TY. The evolution of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-from proteomics to emerging alternative applications. Journal of Chromatography A. 2020;1615:460763.
17. Amiteye S. Basic concepts and methodologies of DNA marker systems in plant molecular breeding. Heliyon. 2021;7(10).
18. Cho J, Prashar A, Jones NL, Moss SF. Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastroenterology Clinics. 2021;50(2):261-82.
19. Boonyanugomol W, Kongkasame W, Palittapongarnpim P, Baik S-C, Jung M-h, Shin M-K, et al. Genetic variation in the cag pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori strains detected from gastroduodenal patients in Thailand. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2020;51:1093-101.
20. Ailloud F, Estibariz I, Suerbaum S. Evolved to vary: genome and epigenome variation in the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 2021;45(1):fuaa042.