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Dr. Naila Hamid
Dr. Muhammad Omar Malik
Dr. Bibi Hajira
Dr. Inayat Shah
Dr Mahnoor Azhar


Dietary carbohydrates, diet high fat, diet high protein, food temperature, satiety response, visual analogue scale


Objectives: We aimed to determine the effects of consumption of three different meal compositions at three temperatures on satiety and palatability. And whether they influence energy intake at subsequent meals.

Setting: Khyber Medical University, Khyber Medical College. Pakistan

Participants: Thirteen healthy young males and females aged 18–35 years, with a body mass index of 18.5-24.5 kg/m2.

Study Design: In a randomized cross-over study, participants consumed test meals (high carbohydrate, high protein, and high fat) at cold, warm, and hot temperatures (a total of nine meals). A visual analogue scale (VAS) and area under the curve (AUC) were used for satiety score measurements (0–240 minutes). Postprandially palatability scores were checked by a 9-point hedonic scale, and remainder energy intake was also noted.

Results: VAS for hunger, and desire to eat were significantly different between  the three compositions of meals at three temperatures (P < 0.05) at 240 minutes. Hot temperature meals (high fat and high protein) had higher satiety scores and area under the curve than cold meal groups. The hedonic scale showed that the temperature parameter was highly significant (P < 0.001). Among the meals, high-fat meals had the highest ratings for satiety scores, AUC, and pleasantness. However, the remainder energy intake was not statistically different between the test meals (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: High-fat and hot temperatures meals can enhance satiety and satiation. However, the effect on satiety and satiation was short-term, and it did not affect remainder of energy intake during the rest of the day.

Abstract 176 | pdf Downloads 46


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