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Dr. Madiha Khattak
Dr. Muhammad Omar Malik
Dr. Robina Usman
Dr. Syed Hamid Habib
Dr. Umar Saddique


Chronic Alternating Stress, Wistar Albino Rats, Cold Water Immersion Stress, Restraint Stress, Circadian Rhythm, Corticosterone, Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal axis, Hole Board Behavioural Test.


In order to study stress a lot of animal models have been developed so as to copy as closely as possible the stress experienced by humans in everyday life. Some of these models are very harsh and cause permanent physical damage or psychological diseases in animals. Some of the models are time consuming and are not strong enough leading to adaptation. Some models are too expensive and not visibly advantageous. To contribute to this field, we designed a chronic alternating stress model aimed at examining the impact of stress on both parent rats and their initial offspring generation. This model involved subjecting the rodents to a three-week regimen of chronic alternating stressors, encompassing disruptions to circadian rhythms, cold water immersion and restraint-induced stress. This manuscript presents an in-depth account of our methodology and draws comparisons with existing stress models. In conclusion chronic alternating stress model, administered over a 3-week period, effectively induced stress related behavioral changes and activated the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis by raising Corticosterone and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH).

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