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Dr Abdulghafoor Sediqi
Dr Kashif Adnan
Syed Muhammad Ilyas Jan
Qurat ul Ain
Ahmad Milad Stanikzai
Muhammad Ashraf
Hira Fatima



This quantitative research study explores the discoloration effects on dental composite restorations resulting from exposure to different smoking sources, namely cigarette smoke, hookah emissions, and vaping aerosols. A total of 120 standardized composite specimens were subjected to controlled exposure conditions, and color changes were measured using a spectrophotometer. The results revealed significant variations in color changes among the exposure groups. Cigarette smoke exhibited the most substantial impact, with a significantly higher mean ΔE value compared to hookah emissions and vaping aerosols. Hookah emissions demonstrated a color change comparable to cigarette smoke, while vaping aerosols induced a relatively milder effect on color stability. These findings carry important clinical implications for dental practitioners, emphasizing the need to consider the specific smoking source when assessing and managing esthetic consequences in patients with composite restorations. The study also highlights avenues for future research to delve deeper into the complex interactions between smoking alternatives and dental materials.

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