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Panda Dhiren
Modi Vimal
Chandel Mahakal Singh
Raman Ramendra Kumar
Saurjya Ranjan


Femur Length Estimation, Skeletal Fragments, Anthropometry, Radiology, Forensic Anthropology, Bioarchaeology


Background: This research aimed to develop a reliable and accurate method for estimating the femur length from skeletal fragments.

 Method: A sample of 165 skeletal fragments (90 males, 75 females; 78 right-side, 87 left side) was analyzed for various anatomical measurements, including neck length, neck circumference, neck shaft angle, inter-epicondylar distance, and others. The physical and radiological measurements of femoral neck angle (FNA), femoral head diameter, foveal depth, and other parameters were recorded. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the relationships between these variables and total femoral length. Linear regression analyses were conducted, and Levene's test was applied to evaluate homogeneity of variance.

 Result: The femoral head diameter, foveal depth, foveal longitudinal diameters, foveal transverse diameters, and other specific measurements exhibited strong positive correlations with total femoral length (p < 0.0001). However, certain anatomical variables, including neck length and neck shaft angle, showed non-significant correlations. Equations derived from significant variables were formulated for accurate femur length estimation. Levene's test indicated homogeneity of variance for most measurements.

 Conclusion: The developed equations offer a robust approach to estimating femur length from skeletal fragments, emphasizing the potential applications for stature estimation in forensic and anthropological contexts. Further validation and application across diverse populations are warranted

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