Main Article Content

Vismruti Rathod
Ms. Krupa Vyas
Dr. Pragnesh Patani


Analgesic agents, Anti- inflammatory agents, Ruta graveolens, NSAIDs, Comparative study


Inflammation is a complex biological response to pathogens and tissue damage, involving various immune cells and inflammatory mediators. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely used to mitigate inflammation and pain by inhibiting prostaglandin production through COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme inhibition. However, NSAIDs are associated with potential side effects, including gastrointestinal and renal issues. In contrast, Ruta graveolens, a plant from the Rutaceae family, has a long history of use in Ayurveda, Homeopathy, and Unani medicine. It contains a diverse array of compounds, including acridone alkaloids, coumarins, essential oils, flavonoids, and fluoroquinolones, which contribute to its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. This review article delves into the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Ruta graveolens and compares them with those of allopathic medicines, particularly NSAIDs. We explore the mechanisms of action, clinical evidence, and safety profiles of both approaches. NSAIDs are effective at reducing inflammation and pain but come with notable side effects, including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks. In contrast, Ruta graveolens demonstrates potential as a safer alternative with fewer side effects, though more research is needed to establish its safety profile fully. We present the results of our comparative analysis, highlighting the strengths and limitations of each treatment option. Additionally, we discuss the chemical composition of Ruta graveolens and its traditional uses, shedding light on its diverse array of constituents, such as acridone alkaloids, coumarins, limonoids, and flavonoids. Furthermore, we provide insights into the methodology used for extracting Ruta graveolens, including aqueous, methanolic, and ethanolic extracts, and describe animal models used to assess anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Our analysis incorporates data from studies exploring the inhibition of sPLA2 enzyme, carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats, and the analgesic potential of Ruta graveolens.

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