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Dr. Tayyeba Idrees Butt
Kiran Shazdi
Farheen Anjum
Muhammad Ahmar Yaqoob
Mian Muhammad Mohsin Sattar
Ayesha Umer


Metabolic syndrome, ardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, mental disorders, depression


Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by a combination of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, often accompanied by several associated complications.

Objective: To elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms linking MS and mental disorders, with a particular emphasis on depression.

Methods: Comprehensive review of literature examining the interplay between metabolic abnormalities and mental health conditions.


  • MS represents a significant health concern due to its association with elevated risks of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and other prevalent chronic non-communicable diseases, all of which contribute to heightened morbidity and mortality rates.

  • Patients with mental disorders, notably depression, exhibit an augmented risk for cardiometabolic diseases. Interestingly, while atypical antipsychotic medications have historically been implicated in exacerbating this risk, evidence suggests that even patients not on these medications display elevated cardiometabolic risks.

  • The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms involve intricate neurohumoral alterations. Central to these are dysfunctions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system.

Conclusion: The relationship between metabolic syndrome and mental disorders, particularly depression, is multifaceted, with shared underlying mechanisms suggesting the need for integrated care approaches targeting both metabolic and mental health domains.

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