Main Article Content

L. Surjeeth Basha
Ashok Kumar
Cindy Jose


Triggers, Quality of life Migraine


Our study delved into the complex realm of migraine, an extensive and disabling neurological condition, with a dual focus on uncovering its triggers and evaluating the quality of life (QoL) experienced by patients. We recruited migraine patients aged 16 years and above, excluding individuals with co-morbidities or undergoing cancer-related treatments, resulting in a cohort of 200 participants, among whom 78.5% were female and 21.5% were male, primarily concentrated (32.5%) in the 26-35 age group. A notable 56.6% had a familial history of migraine. Of the 190 patients encountering pain, 61.05% reported severe headache intensification triggered by noise, and 56.84% by exposure to light. The study identified several significant triggers, including emotional stress (97.5%), physical exertion (64.5%), traveling (55.5%), sleep deprivation (55%), missed meals (63.5%), and weather change (69%). Assessment via the MIDAS questionnaire highlighted that over 69.5% of patients experienced moderate to severe disability due to migraine, while WHOQOL-Bref data indicated a notably poor QoL among these individuals. Our findings underscore the substantial impact of migraine on the lives of sufferers, emphasizing the pressing need for tailored counseling and robust psychological support to augment treatment efficacy. This comprehensive understanding of triggers and their consequent effects underscores the importance of personalized care to alleviate the considerable burden endured by individuals grappling with migraine.

Abstract 102 | pdf Downloads 56


1.International Headache Society, 2018. The International Classification of Headache Disorders. 3 re-edition. Cephalalgia. 2018;4:211–318.
2.Usha K, Rama K, Jayantee K. A Study of Triggers of Migraine in India. American academy of Pain Medicine. 2010;11:44–47.
3.Chakravarty A. Primary headaches associated with sexual activity—Some observations in Indian patients. Cephalalgia. 2006;26:202–207.
4.GBD 2016 Headache Collaborators, 2018. Global, regional, and national burden of migraine and tension-type headache, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurology 2016;7:954–976.
5.The World Health Report 2001: Mental Health: New Understanding New Hope. Geneva: World Health Organization;2001.
6.Ferrari MD et al., Migraine current understanding and treatment. New England Journal of Medicine. 2002;346:257-270.
7.Dowson A, Jagger S. The UK Migraine Patient Survey: quality of life and treatment. Current Medical Research and Opinion.1999;15:241-253
8.Dahlf CGH, Dimenas E. Migraine patients experience poorer subjective quality of life even between attacks. Cephalagia. 1995;15:31-36.
9.Hahn SR, Lipton RB, Sheftell FD, et al. Healthcare provider-patient communication and migraine assessment: results of the American Migraine Communication Study [AMCS] phase II. Current Medical Research and Opinion. 2008;24:17711-177118
10.Peterlin, B. L., Gupta, S., Ward, T. N., & MacGregor, A. Sex Matters: Evaluating Sex and Gender in Migraine and Headache Research. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 2011;51(6), 839–842.
11.Victor, T., Hu, X., Campbell, J., Buse, D., & Lipton, R. (2010). Migraine prevalence by age and sex in the United States: A life-span study. Cephalalgia, 30(9), 1065–1072. .​
12.Wang J, Chen T, Lui J, et al. Migraine is a risk factor for sudden sensorineural hearing loss: A nationwide population-based study. Cephalalgia. 2012;33(2): 80-86.
13.Almohammadawi KOM, Alhilfi HSQ and Alkhalidy RAA. Clinical characteristics of migraine: A prospective cross-sectional study over nine years [version1; peer review: 2 approved with reservations, 1 not approved]. F1000Research 2018, 7:1973
14.Kelman, L. Migraine Pain Location: A Tertiary Care Study of 1283 Migraineurs. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain,2005,45:(8), 1038–1047.
15.Kelman, L. Pain Characteristics of the Acute Migraine Attack. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 2006,46:(6), 942–953.
16.Talarska, D., Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak, M., Michalak, M., Czajkowska, A., & Hudaś, K. Functioning of Women with Migraine Headaches. The Scientific World Journal, 2014,1–8.
17.Koppen, H., & van Veldhoven, P. L. Migraineurs with exercise-triggered attacks have a distinct migraine. The Journal of Headache and Pain,2013,14:(99),1-6.
18.Lipton, R. B., Bigal, M. E., Diamond, M., Freitag, F., Reed, M. L., & Stewart, W. F.). Migraine prevalence, disease burden, and the need for preventive therapy. Neurology, 2007,68:(5), 343–349. 
19.Tekatas A., & Mungen B. Migraine Headache Triggered Specifically by Sunlight: Report of 16 Cases. European Neurology,2013,70:(5-6), 263–266.
20.Harriott, A. M., & Schwedt, T. J. Migraine is Associated With Altered Processing of Sensory Stimuli. Current Pain and Headache Reports,2014,18:(11).458-462.
21.Vingen V,Sand T,Stovner L, Sentivity to Various Stimuli in primary Headches: A Questionnaire Study, Current Pain and Headache Reports 1999,39:(2),552-558.
22.Chia, V., Bogdanov, A., Yusuf, A., & Kallenbach, L. Characteristics of migraine patients with Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) scores in real-world clinical practice. Cephalalgia Reports,2020,3,1-7.
23.Shaik MM, Hassan NB, Tan HL, et al. Quality of life and Migraine Disability among Female Migraine Patients in Tertiary Care Hospital in Malaysia. Biomed Research International. 2015;1:01-09.

Most read articles by the same author(s)