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Dr. Syeda Razia Bukhari
Dr. Haroon-ur-Rashid
Madiha Yqqoob
Muhammad Zaryab
Asma Razzaq
Dr. Taraq Waheed Khan


Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Patients, Violence and Risk Reduction, Psychotherapeutic Approaches & Forensic Settings.


Objective: This systematic review's objective is to thoroughly investigate how different psychotherapy interventions can lower the risk of violence in forensic settings among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD).

Methods: To find relevant publications published between 2011 and 2022, a thorough search of electronic databases was conducted, including PubMed, PsycINFO, Psyndex Lit & AV using the Ovid search engine, CINAHL via EBSCOhost, Scopus, and Web of Science - Core Collection. In an effort to include as many possible interventions as possible, a purposefully inclusive search query was used. Seeing that the lines separating antagonism and violence are not always clear, we included both phrases in our search parameters. A combination of terms pertaining to forensic settings, psychotherapy therapies, lowering the risk of violence, and schizophrenia spectrum illnesses were used in the search approach. The studies that reported on interventions designed to lessen aggression in forensic settings among patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders met the inclusion criteria.

Results: The selected research investigated a range of psychotherapy modalities, including social skills training, cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychosocial interventions, anger management, and psychoeducation. The combined findings of these investigations suggest that psychotherapy interventions may be useful in reducing aggression in forensic contexts among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, it is imperative to recognize that the evidence base is still limited, and definitive conclusions require further high-quality study.

Conclusion: Over the past ten years, psychotherapy techniques have shown promise in reducing the likelihood of violence in forensic contexts among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Notably, psychosocial therapies and cognitive-behavioral therapy have emerged as effective tactics. More investigation is need to determine the best combination and length of these therapies, though. Because of the paucity of available data and the variation in previous research, more investigation is required to determine the best therapies for this particular demographic. Larger sample sizes, standardized outcome measures, and rigorous methodology should be used in future research to strengthen the body of evidence and guide the creation of evidence-based procedures in forensic contexts.


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