Main Article Content

Tanvi Bhambhaney
Nirav Rathi
Dr. Pragnesh Patani




This abstract illuminates the multi-dimensional essence of essential oils, transcending their aromatic allure to invigorate the mind, body, and spirit. The burgeoning industry has evolved from its conventional perfumed origins to embrace a realm of self-care and holistic well-being. Essential oils, comprised of volatile compounds synthesized across plant components, encompass hydrocarbons and oxygenated elements. The realm of production encompasses both time-honored and innovative techniques, shaping their availability. These oils are channeled through a diverse array of delivery avenues, ranging from aromatherapy to pioneering nanotechnology. The review further delves into the utilization of assorted nanocarriers like liposomes, niosomes, nano-emulsions, and solid lipid nanoparticles. These carriers significantly amplify their attributes, as detailed within. In addition to their sensory appeal, these oils confer safeguarding attributes, combating fungal, bacterial, viral, and insect-related concerns

Abstract 223 | pdf Downloads 120


1. Sharmeen JB, Mahomoodally FM, Zengin G, Maggi F. Essential oils as natural sources of fragrance compounds for cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Molecules. 2021 Jan 27;26(3):666.
2. Galper A. The trends to watch impacting the use of essential oils and aromatherapy [Internet]. 2022. Available from: _the_use_of_essential_oils_and_aromatherapy/203923
3. A Complete Guide To Essential Oils for Skin | New Directions Aromatics [Internet]. 2020. Available from:
4. Michalak M. Aromatherapy and methods of applying essential oils. Archives of Physiotherapy and Global Researches. 2018;22(2):25-31.
5. Naeem A, Abbas T, Ali TM, Hasnain A. Essential oils: Brief background and uses. Ann. Short Rep. 2018;1(6).
6. Stratakos AC, Koidis A. Methods for extracting essential oils. In Essential oils in food preservation, flavor and safety 2016 Jan 1 (pp. 31-38). Academic Press.
7. Reyes-Jurado F, Franco-Vega A, Ramírez-Corona N, Palou E, López-Malo A. Essential oils: antimicrobial activities, extraction methods, and their modeling. Food Engineering Reviews. 2015 Sep;7:275-97.
8. Michalak M. Aromatherapy and methods of applying essential oils. Archives of Physiotherapy and Global Researches. 2018;22(2):25-31.
9. Caliskan UK, Karakus MM. Essential oils as skin permeation boosters and their predicted effect mechanisms. Journal of Dermatology and Skin Science. 2020 Nov 24;2(3).
10. Kashyap N, Kumari A, Raina N, Zakir F, Gupta M. Prospects of essential oil loaded nanosystems for skincare. Phytomedicine Plus. 2022 Feb 1;2(1):100198.
11. Macwan SR, Dabhi BK, Aparnathi KD, Prajapati JB. Essential oils of herbs and spices: their antimicrobial activity and application in preservation of food. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2016;5(5):885-901.
12. Masango P. Cleaner production of essential oils by steam distillation. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2005 Jun 1;13(8):833-839.
13. Nazzaro F, Fratianni F, Coppola R, De Feo V. Essential oils and antifungal activity. Pharmaceuticals. 2017 Nov 2;10(4):86.
14. Wu F, Jin Y, Xu X, Yang N. Electrofluidic pretreatment for enhancing essential oil extraction from citrus fruit peel waste. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2017 Aug 15;159:85-94.
15. Charles DJ, Simon JE. Comparison of extraction methods for the rapid determination of essential oil content and composition of basil. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 1990 May 1;115(3):458-62.
16. Sienkiewicz M, Kowalczyk E, Wasiela M. Recent patents regarding essential oils and the significance of their constituents in human health and treatment. Recent patents on anti-infective drug discovery. 2012 Aug 1;7(2):133-40.
17. Djilani A, Dicko A. The therapeutic benefits of essential oils. Nutrition, well-being and health. 2012 Feb 23;7:155-79.
18. Leyva-López N, Gutiérrez-Grijalva EP, Vazquez-Olivo G, Heredia JB. Essential oils of oregano: Biological activity beyond their antimicrobial properties. Molecules. 2017 Jun 14;22(6):989.
19. Chaieb K, Hajlaoui H, Zmantar T, Kahla‐Nakbi AB, Rouabhia M, Mahdouani K, Bakhrouf A. The chemical composition and biological activity of clove essential oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzigium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): a short review. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives. 2007 Jun;21(6):501-506.
20. Bassanetti I, Carcelli M, Buschini A, Montalbano S, Leonardi G, Pelagatti P, Tosi G, Massi P, Fiorentini L, Rogolino D. Investigation of antibacterial activity of new classes of essential oils derivatives. Food Control. 2017 Mar 1;73:606-12.
21. Reichling J, Schnitzler P, Suschke U, Saller R. Essential oils of aromatic plants with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and cytotoxic properties–an overview. Complementary Medicine Research. 2009 Apr 3;16(2):79-90.
22. D’agostino M, Tesse N, Frippiat JP, Machouart M, Debourgogne A. Essential oils and their natural active compounds presenting antifungal properties. Molecules. 2019 Oct 15;24(20):3713.
23. Hu F, Tu XF, Thakur K, Hu F, Li XL, Zhang YS, Zhang JG, Wei ZJ. Comparison of antifungal activity of essential oils from different plants against three fungi. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2019 Dec 1;134:110821.
24. Delespaul Q, de Billerbeck VG, Roques CG, Michel G, Marquier-Viñuales C, Bessière JM. The antifungal activity of essential oils as determined by different screening methods. Journal of essential oil research. 2000 Mar 1;12(2):256-66.
25. Maruzzella JC, Liguori L. The in vitro antifungal activity of essential oils. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association (Scientific ed.). 1958 Apr 1;47(4):250-254.
26. Duschatzky CB, Possetto ML, Talarico LB, García CC, Michis F, Almeida NV, de Lampasona MP, Schuff C, Damonte EB. Evaluation of chemical and antiviral properties of essential oils from South American plants. Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy. 2005 Aug;16(4):247-51.
27. Ma L, Yao L. Antiviral effects of plant-derived essential oils and their components: an updated review. Molecules. 2020 Jun 5;25(11):2627:1459-1480.
28. Reichling J. Antiviral and virucidal properties of essential oils and isolated compounds–A scientific approach. Planta Medica. 2021 Jun 18:587-603.
29. Sá RD, Nalone Andrade L, dos Reis Barreto de Oliveira R, de Sousa DP. A review on anti-inflammatory activity of phenylpropanoids found in essential oils. Molecules. 2014 Jan 27;19(2):1459-80.
30. Siani AC, Souza MC, Henriques MG, Ramos MF. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils from Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava. Pharmaceutical biology. 2013 Jul 1;51(7):881-7.
31. Chao LK, Hua KF, Hsu HY, Cheng SS, Liu JY, Chang ST. Study on the antiinflammatory activity of essential oil from leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2005 Sep 7;53(18):7274-8.
32. Happy AA, Jahan F, Momen MA. Essential oils: Magical ingredients for skin care. J. Plant Sci. 2021;9(2):54.
33. Diniz do Nascimento L, Barbosa de Moraes AA, Santana da Costa K, Pereira Galúcio JM, Taube PS, Leal Costa CM, Neves Cruz J, de Aguiar Andrade EH, Guerreiro de Faria LJ. Bioactive natural compounds and antioxidant activity of essential oils from spice plants: New findings and potential applications. Biomolecules. 2020 Jul 1;10(7):988.
34. Hamidpour R, Hamidpour S, Elias G. Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary): a novel therapeutic agent for antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antidepressant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity treatment. Biomed J Sci Tech Res. 2017;1(4):1-6.
35. Viuda‐Martos M, Ruiz Navajas Y, Sánchez Zapata E, Fernández‐López J, Pérez‐Álvarez JA. Antioxidant activity of essential oils of five spice plants widely used in a Mediterranean diet. Flavour and Fragrance journal. 2010 Jan;25(1):13-19.
36. Wu Z, Tan B, Liu Y, Dunn J, Martorell Guerola P, Tortajada M, Cao Z, Ji P. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of essential oils from peppermint, native spearmint and scotch spearmint. Molecules. 2019 Aug 2;24(15):2825:1-16.
37. Williams HC, Dellavalle RP, Garner S. Acne vulgaris. The Lancet. 2012 Jan 28;379(9813):361-72.
38. Mazzarello V, Gavini E, Rassu G, Donadu MG, Usai D, Piu G, Pomponi V, Sucato F, Zanetti S, Montesu MA. Clinical assessment of new topical cream containing two essential oils combined with tretinoin in the treatment of acne. Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology. 2020 Mar 11:233-9.
39. Nurzyńska-Wierdak R, Pietrasik D, Walasek-Janusz M. Essential oils in the treatment of various types of acne—A review. Plants. 2022 Dec 24;12(1):90.
40. Sobral MV, Xavier AL, Lima TC, de Sousa DP. Antitumor activity of monoterpenes found in essential oils. The Scientific World Journal. 2014 Oct 14;2014:1-36.
41. Fernandes J. Antitumor monoterpenes. Bioactive essential oils and cancer. 2015:175-200.
42. Nerio LS, Olivero-Verbel J, Stashenko E. Repellent activity of essential oils: a review. Bioresource technology. 2010 Jan 1;101(1):372-378.
43. Koul O, Walia S, Dhaliwal GS. Essential oils as green pesticides: potential and constraints. Biopestic. Int. 2008 Jan 1;4(1):63-84.
44. Lee I. Effects of inhalation of relaxing essential oils on electroencephalogram activity. International Journal of New Technology and Research. 2016;2(5):263522:37-43
45. Schneider R, Singer N, Singer T. Medical aromatherapy revisited—Basic mechanisms, critique, and a new development. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental. 2019 Jan;34(1):e2683.
46. Caliskan UK, Karakus MM. Essential oils as skin permeation boosters and their predicted effect mechanisms. Journal of Dermatology and Skin Science. 2020 Nov 24;2(3).
47. Essential oil inhalation guide [Internet]. Available from:
48. Aromatherapist JLC. Best Essential Oils For Steam Inhalation to Ease Congestion [Internet]. Loving essential oil. 2023. Available from:
49. Brazier Y. Aromatherapy: What you need to know [Internet]. 2017. Available from:
50. DiDonato J. Everything You've Ever Wanted to Know About Using an Oil Diffuser. Byrdie [Internet]. 2021 Nov 2; Available from:
51. Diaz-Alonso J, Bernardos A, Regidor-Ros JL, Martinez-Manez R, Bosch-Roig P. Innovative use of essential oil cold diffusion system for improving air quality on indoor cultural heritage spaces. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 2021 Aug 1;162:105251.
52. Peron O. Which essential oils are safe for diffusion? Puressentiel [Internet]. 2022 Apr 14; Available from:
53. AromaTech. Reed Diffusers vs Electric Oil Diffusers: Pros and Cons [Internet]. AromaTech. 2020. Available from:
54. Guide to essential oil diffusers | AromaWeb [Internet]. Available from:
55. Barrell A. 5 nebulizing diffusers for essential oils [Internet]. 2020. Available from:
56. Different types of diffusers - Utama Spice [Internet]. 2019. Available from:
57. Anveya. 10 Effective Essential Oils For Massage [Internet]. Anveya. 2020. Available from:
58. Ernst E, Fialka V. The clinical effectiveness of massage therapy–a critical review. Complementary Medicine Research. 1994 Mar 20;1(5):226-32.
59. Field T. Massage therapy. Medical Clinics. 2002 Jan 1;86(1):163-71.
60. Howarth AL, Freshwater D. Examining the benefits of aromatherapy massage as a pain management strategy for patients with multiple sclerosis. NT Research. 2004 Mar;9(2):120-128.
61. Massage - Aromatherapy massage - using essential oils and carrier oils [Internet]. 2017. Available from:
62. Kumar A, Singh P, Gupta V, Prakash B. Application of nanotechnology to boost the functional and preservative properties of essential oils. In Functional and preservative properties of phytochemicals 2020 Jan 1 (pp. 241-267). Academic Press.
63. Orchard A, van Vuuren S. Commercial essential oils as potential antimicrobials to treat skin diseases. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017 Oct;2017.
64. Medhi B, Pattanshetti V. New Trends in Therapy: From Natural Products to Nanomedicine. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Nanotechnology (IJPSN). 2023 May 1;16(2):6393-5.
65. Lis Arias MJ, López Hernández A. Study of microcapsules of essential oils: drug delivery and particle characterization. Polymer Science: Peer Review Journal. 2022 Sep 7.
66. Albuquerque PM, Azevedo SG, de Andrade CP, D’Ambros NC, Pérez MT, Manzato L. Biotechnological Applications of Nanoencapsulated Essential Oils: A Review. Polymers. 2022 Dec 15;14(24):5495.
67. Alqahtani MS, Alqahtani A, Kazi M, Ahmad MZ, Alahmari A, Alsenaidy MA, Syed R. Wound-healing potential of curcumin loaded lignin nanoparticles. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2020 Dec 1;60:102020.
68. Zakeri Z, Allafchian A, Vahabi MR, Jalali SA. Synthesis and characterization of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using essential oils of crown imperial leaves, bulbs and petals. Micro & Nano Letters. 2021 Sep;16(11):533-9.
69. Abou El-Nour KM, Eftaiha AA, Al-Warthan A, Ammar RA. Synthesis and applications of silver nanoparticles. Arabian journal of chemistry. 2010 Jul 1;3(3):135-40.
70. Vilas V, Philip D, Mathew J. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil. Spectrochimica acta part a: molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy. 2014 Nov 11;132:743-50.
71. Oueslati M, Ben TL. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by essential oil of diplotaxis acris characterization and antimicrobial activities. Orient. J. Chem. 2021 Apr 1;37:405-12.
72. M Hamed M, S Abdelftah L. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using marine Streptomyces griseus isolate (M8) and evaluating its antimicrobial and anticancer activity. Egyptian journal of aquatic biology and fisheries. 2019 Feb 5;23(1):173-84.
73. Abreu FO, Oliveira EF, Paula HC, de Paula RC. Chitosan/cashew gum nanogels for essential oil encapsulation. Carbohydrate polymers. 2012 Aug 1;89(4):1277-82.
74. Damasceno ET, Almeida RR, de Carvalho SY, de Carvalho GS, Mano V, Pereira AC, de Lima Guimaraes LG. Lippia origanoides Kunth. essential oil loaded in nanogel based on the chitosan and ρ-coumaric acid: Encapsulation efficiency and antioxidant activity. Industrial Crops and Products. 2018 Dec 1;125:85-94.
75. Lu, Wen-Chien, et al. "Preparation, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of nanoemulsions incorporating citral essential oil." Journal of food and drug analysis 26.1 (2018): 82-89.
76. Pathania R, Kaushik R, Khan MA. Essential oil nanoemulsions and their antimicrobial and food applications. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2018 Dec 24;6(3):626-43.
77. Ibrar M, Ayub Y, Nazir R, Irshad M, Hussain N, Saleem Y, Ahmad M. Garlic and ginger essential oil-based neomycin nano-emulsions as effective and accelerated treatment for skin wounds’ healing and inflammation: In-vivo and in-vitro studies. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2022 Dec 1;30(12):1700-9.
78. Vilela, Janice de MV, et al. "Safety of lavender oil-loaded niosomes for in vitro culture and biomedical applications." Nanomaterials 12.12 (2022): 1999.
79. Rahimpour Y, Hamishehkar H. Niosomes as carrier in dermal drug delivery. Recent Advances in Novel Drug Carrier Systems. 2012 Oct 31;1(1):141-64.
80. Jufri M, Muthaharrah MU, Humairah EL, Purwaningsih EH. Stability of anti-acne niosome gels containing betel leaf (Piper betle L.) essential oil. Int. J. Appl. Pharm. 2017 Oct;9:130-4.
81. Weiss et al. United States Patent US 9,616,001 B2.solid lipid nanoparticles.2017 Apr.11:1-8.
82. Fazly Bazzaz BS, Khameneh B, Namazi N, Iranshahi M, Davoodi D, Golmohammadzadeh S. Solid lipid nanoparticles carrying Eugenia caryophyllata essential oil: the novel nanoparticulate systems with broad‐spectrum antimicrobial activity. Letters in applied microbiology. 2018 Jun 1;66(6):506-13.
83. Pazyar N, Yaghoobi R, Bagherani N, Kazerouni A. A review of applications of tea tree oil in dermatology. International journal of dermatology. 2013 Jul;52(7):784-90.
84. Clark SM, Wilkinson SM. Phototoxic contact dermatitis from 5‐methoxypsoralen in aromatherapy oil. Contact Dermatitis. 1998 May;38(5):289-90.
85. Lanzerstorfer P, Sandner G, Pitsch J, Mascher B, Aumiller T, Weghuber J. Acute, reproductive, and developmental toxicity of essential oils assessed with alternative in vitro and in vivo systems. Archives of Toxicology. 2021 Feb;95:673-91.